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Full text of "The Massachusetts magazine : devoted to Massachusetts history, genealogy, biography"

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ALLEN COUNTY PIJUI IC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 
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State Ships and Privateers 

We wish to call special attention to the com- 
pleteness of the histories of the Massachusetts State 
ships and private w& appearing in the Department of 
the American Revolution. Their value as contribu- 
tions to American naval history can hardly be over 
estimated- 



Our Sirica of 

Famous Old Houses 

Nearly erery town in the State haj lorae old hou** ; 
a hiftorifl Is "id mark for generations, about wl 
cluster* some eld le^-nd or association that roa'< 
celebrated in the neighborhood. We with to p; 
photographs of all such and will pay $1.00 a-. 
for all that we can use. Send with photograph a ! 
description of the house. 



A very interesting paper from the 
pea of ReY. Thomas Franklin 
Waters, the editor, will appear in 
our next number. 



Regimental History Series 

The article ©a the Colonel William Heath and John Greaton Regiment is the 12th in a series of 
histories of Massachusetts Regiments that took part in the war of the Revolution. They are prepared 
by Dr. F. A.Gardner of Salem, Mass., and will constitute a valuable addition to the military hi 
of the Commonwealth, when completed. The regiments already printed in the Magazine are Colonel 
John Glover's, Colonel William Pre^cott's, Colonel Bphraim Doolittle's, Colonel Timothy Daniel- 
son's and Colonel John Fellows, Colonel Ebenezer Bridge's, Colonel Timothy Walker's, Col. Thee . 
Cotton's, and Colonel James Fr/e's, Colonel Ruggles Woodbridge's, Colonel Sam Gerrish's an! 
Colonel John Greaton's regiment. 



'otilt JHassacIjustiht IHagamtu. 

A Quarterly cATagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 

Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, ipswicb, mass. 

ASSOCIATE AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 



George Sheldon, 

DEEftKiF.il., MASS. 

Charles A. Flacjg, 

WASHINOTOX, D. C. 



Dr. Frank A. Gardner, 

SALEM, MASS. 

John N. McClintock, 

DORCHESTER, MASS. 



Lucie M. Gardner, 

SALEM, M LM, 

Albert W. Dennis, 

SALBM, HAM. 



Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 



VOL. V 



JANUARY, 1912 



Ctmfcufs of tins Issue. 



NO. 



Early Colonial Houses . R. A. Douglas-Lithgow, M.D., LL.D. . 3 

Manuscripts of Massachusetts Charles A. Flagg . 10 

Colonel Wm. Heath's and Colonel John Greaton's Regiments 

. . F. A. Gardner, M.D. . 15 

Diary of Ashley Bowen , 29 

Department of the American Revolution F. A. Gardner, M.D. . 36 

Family Genealogies Lucie M. Gardner . 39 

Criticism and Comment 4S 

Our Editorial Pages Thomas F. Waters . 50 

Index of Authors, Vol. IV ,...,.... 



i 



CORRESPONDENCE of a business nature should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. 

CORRESPONDENCE in regard to contributions to the Magazine may be sent to the editor, Rev. T. F. 
Waters, Ipswich, Mass., or to the oflice of publication in Salem. 

BOOKS for review maybe sent to the office of publication in Salem. Books should not be sent to individual 
editors of the Magazine, unless by previous correspondence the editor consents to review the book. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. Subscriptions are 82.50 
payable in advance, post paid to any address in the United States or Canada. To foreign countries in the 
Postal Union, $2.75. Single copies of back numbers, 75 cents each. 

REMITTANCES may be made in currency or two cent postage stamps; many subscriptions are sent throu^ 
the mail in this wav, and they are seldom lost, but such remittances must be at the riek of the sender. To 
avoid all danger of loss send by post oflice money order, bank check, or express money order. 

CHANGES OF ADDRESS. When a subscriber makes a change of address, he should notify the publisher*, 
giving both his old and new addresses. The publishers cannot be responsible for lost copies, if they are not 
notified of such changes. 

ON SALE. Copies of this magazine are on sale in Boston, at W. B. Clark's & Co., 26 Tremont Street, OM 
Corner Book Store, 29 ■Bromfleld Street, Geo. E. Littletield, 67 Cornhill, Smith & McCance, 38 Brom field Street; 
In Xew York, At John Wanamaker's, Broadway, 4th, 9th and 10th Streets; in Philadelphia, Am. Baptist Pub. 
Society, 1630 Chestnut Street; in Washington, at Brentanos, F & 13th St.; in Chicago, at A. C. McClurg's * Co.. 
221 VV abash Ave.; in London, at B. F. Stevens & Brown, i Trafalgar Sq. Also on sale at principal stands of 
N. E. News Co. 

Entered as second-fd^es matter March 13, 1908, at the post office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congre«» 
of Search 3, 1879. Oflice of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



A GROUP OF EARLY COLONIAL HOUSES 
AT ANDOVER, MASS. 



By R. A. Douglas-Lithgow, M.D., LL.D. 



It is not often that one finds, in the circumscribe 1 district of a country 
town, five 17th century houses belonging to one family, three of which are 
still standing, and occupied by the eighth generation of the original occupants; 
and in a fourth, built on the old site, resides a lady representing the eighth 
generation of her direct branch; but such is the case at Andover, Mass., 
where George Abbot, Sen., was a pioneer settler in 1G43, and each of the 
houses was built by one of his sons. 

John Abbot, born in 1648, — the first son of George, Sen., is described as 
having been employed in town business and often as a selectman. When 
the first church was organized in the South parish, he was chosen a Deacon, 
— a position which he worthily occupied for a number of years, as did several 
of his brothers, and many of their descendants. He died in 1721. 

Between 1073-5 a garrison house, for refuge and defence against the 
Indians, was erected on Central street, a little beyond the South Church, but 
on the other side of the street, and here John Abbot lived until 1704, — his 
father having removed from North Andover, previous to 167G, in order to 
reside with him. 

1 These garrison-houses were erected by an order of the Governor and 
Council, and were "environed round for the security and safety, under God, 
of the people, their houses, goods and catell from the rage and fury of the 
heathen enemy." 

The following description of these garrison houses appears in Bouton's 
History of Concord. They "were built of hewn logs which lay flat upon each 



4 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

other; the ends be ; ng fitted for the purpose, were inserte 1 in grooves cut in 
large posts erected at each corner. They enclosed an area of several square 
rods, were ra ; sed to the he : ght of the roof of a common dwelling-house, and 
at two or more of the corners were placed boxes where sentinels kept watch. 
In some cases several small buildings, raised for the temporary accommo la- 
tion of families were with'n the enclosure. 

In April, 1673, the Indians attacked Andover, and particularly the gar- 
rison-house of John Abbot, at a t ; me when most of his brothers were work- 
ing in the fields, and succeeded in killing Joseph Abbot, a young soldier of 24 
years who had passed safely through the Narragansett fight of the previous 
year (probably the cause of the attack), and also took captive his brother 
Timothy, a lad of fourteen years. 

Better arrangements were, however, subsequently organized, and, although 
the Indians did much damage during this and the next year or so, after the 
death of King Philip they settled down in peace. 

In 1704 John Abbot built a new house on the same lot and in front of 
the garrison -house, for the accommodation of himself, his family, and his 
father. The garrison-house having from various causes become dilapidated. 
was finally demolished. Unfortunately no picture of it is procurable. 

The Abbot homestead became known as the "Old Red House". Here 
seven generations of John Abbott's family were reared, and here their sturdy 
grandfather, George Abbot, Sen., peaceably breathed his last. The "Old 
Red House" was taken down in 1858, having stood for more than a century 
and a half. The following photograph gives a good idea of its original con- 
struction and appearance, although the view is taken from the rear. 

From the above it will be seen that the "Old Red House" standing in a 
large lot (in the rear of which the garrison-house formerly stood), was a 
building of two and a half stories, facing south, with a large ell built at 
right angles behind. It had two large chimneys, one on the western end 
and one piercing the northern roof about midway. There were two small 
lean-tos in the rear, one of which was built over the well which still remains 
although no longer used. The house looked quaint and comfortable, ani 
had numerous doors and windows. Many alterations had been effected, but 
it was ever a pleasing and picturesque object, — the type of a genuine early 
Colonial home, without vulgarity or pretentiousness, yet entwining during 
many generations the honest hearts and Christian virtues which have made 
New England what it is. 



EARLY COLONIAL HOUSES 5 

Abeautiful butter-nut tree graced the western end of the building, and it, 
with a large and stately elm which stood in front, still remain as monuments 
of other and more ancient days. 

Homestead of George Abbot, Jr. 

The house of George Abbot, Jr., fourth son of George A^bot, Sr., is also 
on Central street, and almost opposite the "Old Red House." It is still 
standing, but has been so modified and added to that beyond the facade and 
the front rooms comparatively little remains of the original structure. 

It is said to have been erected in 1678 (when the owner was 23 years of 
age), and this is probable, as he was married in this year. I was not, how- 




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ever, accorded an opportunity of examining the interior of the house, so that 
this must remain a moot point. 

Seven generations of the younger George Abbot's family were reared in 
this house, — a fact which testifies to its antiquity. 

It is a plain-fronted, two-storied house of the early Colonial period, with 
the hall-door in the middle of its frontal aspect, — five windows above, and 
two on each side of the entrance door, which is enclosed within a neat pedi- 
mented portico of later construction. There was a lean-to with a gambrel 
roof on the south end of the house. This had two stories, that on the ground- 
floor containing a large brick fire-place and oven. The chimney on the main 



6 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

house was central, but that of the lean-to was on the northern end. The 
front of the lean-to had three windows to light the lower story, and also con- 
tained a front door. In the Centennial Volume the house was stated to have 
been 160 years old in 1893, which would make the date of its erection as 
1736; but this point cannot be settled without a careful examination. 

Benjamin Abbot Homestead 
1685-1911 

The quaint, charming homestead erected by Benjamin Abbot, the fifth 
son of George Abbot, Sen., in 1685, and situated in Andover street, near the 
Hartwell Abbot bridge over the Shawsheen river, still stands in all its vener- 
able pride as an enduring monument to its original builders. 

In this house eight generations of Benjamin Abbot's family have found a 
peaceful and happy home, and notwithstanding the vicissitudes of time, 
through which it has passed during two centuries and a quarter, its present 
condition augurs well for its stability during many years to come. 

The house consists of two and a half stories, its facade facing south. It 
has the long-sloping northern roof which for half a century characterized the 
houses of the Nantucket settlers, who came from the neighborhood of Ames- 
bury and Salisbury, and, as in most cases, it slopes down to domestic offices 
in the rear ; on the western end there is a lean-to extending up to the second 
story, with five windows and a door in front ; on the eastern end is a neat 
well-shed. A large pilastered chimney springs from the center of the roof, 
and the house is approached by a vine-clad pedimented portico: there are 
five windows on the level of the second story, and two on each side of the 
front entry door. . 

The original frame-work remains, — strong and massive as ever, and unal-' 
tered, — and the corner posts in second story are bracketed. 

In front of the house is a majestic elm tree, nineteen feet in girth, and" 
doubtless contemporaneous with the building of the edifice, if not older. This 
noble tree, with its mature branches mantled in vivid green, seems to smile 
at the passing of time; and although its ample arms are manacled in chains 
to support them in their old age, it is only because its venerable character, 
extending through a long past, is still loved and reverenced by those who 
still venerate it in the present. 

To enter this old-time house is like the realization of a by-gone dream. 
Lavender and rosemary seem to freight the interior with sweetness, and when 







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EARLY COLONIAL HOUSES 7 

the door is closed one can easily imagine oneself as translated into an at- 
mosphere of ancient days. Furnishings, furniture, the arrangement of the 
roofs, — the innate quality and courteous grace of the chatelaine, — everything 
reminds one of a time and circumstances long passed away, leaving the vic- 
tor as if spell-bound in bewildering delight. 

Four spacious rooms on the ground-floor radiate from the large central 
chimney, and there is a mantel and fire-place in every room! Nooks, and 
cupboards, and closets eveywhere, and where least expected: old H iron hinges. 
old latches and locks, old china and bric-a-brac in profusion, and all so cosy, 
so comfortable, and so congenial as to make one envy the past domestic hap- 
piness of our forefathers; and, as if to crown all, an introduction to a gentle- 
man of the old school, — tall, straight, dignified and courtly, — Timothy Abbot, 
aged 8S years, — the Nestor of the eighth generation. 

Front stairs and back stairs lead up to six good sized chambers. May 
domestic and every happiness ever crown this dear old homestead with 
peace! 

Timothy Abbot Homestead 



Timothy Abbot, seventh son of George Abbot, Sen., was married in 1090, 
to Hannah Graves, and in this year his homestead was built. He was born 
in 1G63, and, when 13 years of age, on April 18, 1676, was captured by the 
Indians, in Andover, near the garrison-house, but was returned in safety by a 
kind-hearted squaw, who had compassion upon his bereaved mother, during 
August of the same year. He died September 9, 1730. 

The original house was taken down in 1815, but eight generations of his 
descendants have occupied it and the house subsequently erected on the old 
site. 

Mrs. Samuel H. Bailey, nee Miss Abbot, now represents the eighth gene- 
ration of the family, on Porter road, off South Main street, Andover. 

For the following description of the original house I am indebted to an 
excellent colored sketch by a member of the family. 

It was two and a half stories high, with a porch in front, two windows on 
each side of porch, five windows on the second story. It had a southern 
frontage, three windows in west end and a lean-to on each end of the house. 
There was a large pilastercd chimney on the east end, and the western lean-to 
had a separate chimney. Steps led up to the porch; the northern roof was 



8 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



somewhat longer than the southern, and there was a front door in each lean-to. 

There was also a garrison-house in the rear of this one. The sketch 
above referred to is here reproduced by photography by the courtesy of Mrs. 
Samuel H. Bailey. 

Two large ash trees and a mature elm still grace the ancient site. 

The Thomas Abbot Homestead 

Thomas Abbot, the eighth son of George Abbot, Sen., was born in 1 G '3 , 
and married, in 1697, Hannah Gray. In the same year he built his home- 
stead which still stands a little to the westward of his brother Benjamin's, 



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Five generations of Thomas Abbot's descendants occupied this house during 
the first century of its existence, 1697 to 1797, as follows: — 

2nd generation, Thomas Abbot, born May 6, 1663, died April 28, 172S. 

3d " Thomas, born January 3, 1699, died July 11, 1774. 

4th " Thomas, born April 4, 1729, died March 29, 1775. 

5th " Thomas, born June 11, 1767, died March 21, 1818. 

Thomas, 5th, was the last Abbot to occupy the house, as, after his death, 
it became the residence of Dr. Symonds Baker, whose descendants, for four- 
generations, have occupied it to this day. 

The 6th Thomas Abbot was a mariner, and unmarried. 



EARLY COLONIAL HOUSES 9 

The accompanying photograph, by the courtesy of Miss Mary Alice Abbot, 
gives a good representation of the house. 

It will be seen that its general contour resembles the Benjamin Abbot 
house, although it was built some years later. No detailed description is 
necessary. 

Mutely, but eloquently, these old houses stand to remind us of the Past, 
and of our early Colonial history. What memories cluster around them ! 
What vicissitudes they have seen, what industry, fortitude, and forte of 
character they represent! In such it has been that the gradual evolution 
of American manhood and nationality has become developed, and over them 
yet, like a cloud of incense, wafts the sweetness of duty fulfilled, an 1 of 
patriotism ever cherished. 



MANUSCRIPTS OF MASSACHUSETTS 

INTEREST IN THE DIVISION OF MANU- 
SCRIPTS, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



This list does not exhaust the material of Bay State interest in the Library 
of Congress. In the first place single manuscripts, letters, etc., are not in- 
cluded, whether by themselves or parts of collections. Only separate volumes 
or collections have been noticed, and it is by no means certain that all such 
have been listed. 

No mention is made of such collections as the Continental Congress 
papers, the Peter Force transcripts of Washington and other Revolutionary 
papers containing numerous rolls and lists of Massachusetts soldiers, etc. 

Some of the numbers are copies of manuscript originals. 

No effort has been made to indicate what papers have been printed, or 
where such printed copies may be found. 

gener\l items chronologically 

[Massachusetts 1620-1774.] Hazard copies, two packages. In large part 
printed in his "Historical collections." 

"Manuscripts, Massachusetts." Two volumes with mounted manuscripts 
1631-1863; especially strong in manuscripts on the period of the French and 
Indian war, 1756-1763; including some muster rolls. 

Governor Thomas Dudley's letter to the Countess of Lincoln, March, 
1631. Copy of an old Ms. with note by J. Farmer. 

Samuel Gorton's letter to Nathaniel Morton, Warwick, June 30, 1669. 
A certified copy by Henry Stevens, Jr., Cambridge, March, IS 14. 

Scottow's narrative of his voyage to Pemmaquid, 1677. Peter Force's 
copy. 



MANUSCRIPTS OF MASSACHUSETTS 11 

Account of a voyage to Penobscot in Maine by Samuel Penhallow and 
Theodore Atkinson, Esqs., who were sent with supplies for the Indians by 
Lieut. Gov. Partridge. 1703. 

Letter of Jeremiah Dummer to Timothy Tyndale, Esq., speaker of the 
Hon. House of Representatives. Dated London, April, 1721. 

Instructions. General Shirley to Sir William Pepperel, March 10, and 22, 
1744-0. With The capitulation of Louisburg, June 10, 1745. (Jeremy Bel- 
knap's copies, 1782.) 

A journal of the siege of Louisburg and the operations of the forces dur- 
ing the expedition against the French settlements on Cape Breton. 1745. 

Journal of Capt. Phineas Stevens to Canada, 1749, as commissioner of the 
Mass. government. 

Journal of Capt. Phinehas Stevens' travels to Canada, Apr. 12, 1752. 
(Stevens and N. Wheelwright were commissioners from Mass.) 

List of amounts still unpaid to Mass. troops as shown by the various 
muster rolls in the State treasurer's office. 1754. 

A journal of Matthew Clesson's travel on his intended scout to the Lake 
Champlain, Apr. 13-25, 1756. Includes also bill of expenses to wait on the 
General Court, 1764. 

Journal of the attack of Fort William Henry on the 3d of August and the 
surrender of it on the 9th of the same month, 1757. By Col. Frye of the 
Mass. regiment. Appended a brief account of Frye's military services 1747- 
1776. (Two different copies of this.) 

The state of the government of Massachusetts Bay as it stood in the year 
1757. Copies from a paper in the handwriting of Gov. Pownal. 

Rev. John Cleaveland's journal of the campaign in Lake Champlain 
region, 1758. 

Papers relating to a college in Hampshire county 1761-1762. Charter 
of Queen's college granted by Gov. Bernard, 1762, and later suspended. 

Letter book of Dennys de Berdt, agent of Mass., 1755-1770. 

Two letters from London merchants to the English colonies, Feb. 2S, 
and June 13, 1766. 

A journal of the proceedings of the Commissioners of New York, at a 
congress with the Commissioners of the Massachusetts Bay, relating to the 
establishment of a partition line of jurisdiction, New Haven, Oct. 1-8, 1767. 
Signed by the three N. Y. commissioners. 



12 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Orderly book of Capt. William Reed, Mass. militia, May-Aug. 1775. 

Orderly book of Jeremiah Niles, Aug. 12, 1775-Jan. 1770. 

Journal of the Committee appointed by the states of New Hampshire. 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, for the purpose of conferring 
respecting further emissions of paper currency on the credit of any of the 
said states; also on measures for supporting the credit of the public curren- 
cies thereof, etc. 1776. (From a copy attested by the president, Wm. 
Bradford, in possession of the New Hampshire Historical Society. Attest, 
J.'Farmer, 1833.) 

Orderly book of Capt. Daniel Warner's company, Col. Jonathan Holman's 
regiment. . . 1776. 

Votes of the towns in relation to the declaration of independence. 
May-July, 1776. 

Hampshire County. New Salem, Norwich, Palmer, Leverett, Southamp- 
ton, Greenwich, Murrayfield. 

Berkshire* County. Alford, Williamstown, Tyringham, Stockbridge, 
Pittsfield. 

Norfolk County. Walpole, Medway, Wrentham. 

Middlesex County. Billerica, Acton, Bedford, Natick, Ashby. 

Plymouth County. Scituate, Hanover. 

Essex County. Newburyport, Topsfield. 

Worcester County. Northbridge, Sturbridge, Fitchburg, Winchendon. 

Barnstable County. Eastham. 

Bristol County. Taunton. 

District of Maine. Brunswick, Gageborough. 

Orderly book of James Roberts of Mass. at Ticonderoga, July 4-Sept. 24, 
1776. 

Rev. John Cleaveland's diary in the New York campaign Oct. 1-Dec. 2, 
1776. 

Returns and rolls of Col. Henry Jackson's Continental regiment 1777-17S0. 

Returns and rolls of Lee's Continental regiment 1777-1779, commanded 

successively by W. R. Lee and W, S. Smith. Also, the 16th Mass. Line, 
commanded by Henry Jackson, 1780-1781. 

Receipt book of Lieut. Wm. Taylor, quartermaster 2d Mass. regiment, 
1778-1782. 



MANUSCRIPTS OF MASSACHUSETTS 13 

Returns, Col. Henry Jackson's regiment 1778-1779, and descriptive roll 
of men. 

Orderly book of Col. Ezra Wood's regiment, Mass. militia, White Plains, 
July-Aug. 1778. 

Orderly book of Adj. Richard Buckmasters, 6th Mass. regt., Aug. 1778- 
Feb. 1779. 

Fourth Mass. regt. Supplies issued 1779-17S2. 

Returns of Mass. regiments; accounts, rolls, etc., of the 10th, 9th and 4th 
Mass. Line 17S0-17S3, commanded successively by Col. Henry Jackson. 

Clothing account, Capt. Ebenezer Smith's company, 13th Mass. regiment, 
1780-1783. 

Doings of the committees from the states of New Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, assembled at Boston in August, 1780, to consider the 
affairs relating to the war, etc. From the original in the New Hampshire 
Historical Society. Attest, J. Farmer. 

Returns of the 4th Mass. line, commanded by Col. William Shepard, 1781- 
17S2. 

Orderly book of Lieut, and Adjutant Francis Tufts, 8th Mass. regt. Jan. 
10-Apr. 8, 1782. 

Roll and returns of Capt. William Watson'scompany, 9th Mass. regt., 1782. 

Returns of the 9th Mass. regt., Col. Henry Jackson, 1782. 

Quartermaster's accounts, 4th Mass. regt., 17S2. 

Roll and account of Capt. Caleb Clapp's company, 4th Mass. regt., 17S2. 

Receipt book of supplies issued to the 4th Mass. Continental regt., May- 
Oct. 1782. 

Garrison orders, Fort Independence, Sept. 22-Nov. 2S, 1814. 

Muster rolls of Capt. Wilde's and Smith's companies, 59th Mass. volun- 
teers. 1S64. 

LOCAL 

Beverly. Revolutionary papers, 1775-1776, including rolls of Capt. Moses 
Brown's company, etc. 



14 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Charlestown. Record descriptive of the Mystic water-works at Charlestown, 
kept at the time of the construction 1S62-1S63. By Roberdeau Buchanan. 

Eastham. Historical sketch of the town. Presented to the town July 4, 
1876. By Heman Doane. 

Martha's Vineyard. Martha's Vineyard. Dukes County. A portfolio of 
papers, chiefly legal, 1722-1S00. A fund of information relative to the 
towns of Tisbury, Edgartown and Chilmark, and the Indians on Martha's 
Vineyard. 

North Reading. A record book containing names of soldiers in Civil war, 
chiefly if not all from North Reading, giving names, term of enlistment, 
regiment, bounty and note of service or discharge. 

Shirley. Historical address delivered in Shirley July 4, 1S76. By Seth 
Chandler. 

Whately. Roll and orderly book of Amos Pratt's company of riflemen of 
Whately, Mar. 14, 1814-May 2, 1820. (In garrison at South Boston 
and Dorchester, Sept. 20 -Oct, 28, 1S14.) 



COLONEL WILLIAM HEATH'S 

AND 

COLONEL JOHN GREATON'S 
REGIMENTS 



Colonel William Heath's Regiment, April 19, 1775. 

Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, April 19, 1775. 

Colonel William Heath's 21st Regiment, Provincial Army, April-July, 1775. 

Colonel John Greaton's 36th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, July-Dkcember, 1775. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M.D. 

Colonel John Greaton's 36th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, was 
formed by bringing together the companies which made up the above named 
Lexington alarm regiments, it has therefore seemed wise to the author to con- 
sider them all in one chapter. Colonels Heath and Greaton both com- 
manded regimental organizations at the time of the Lexington alarm, and 
Colonel Greaton became Colonel Heath's Lieutenant-Colonel in the Provincial 
Army Regiment, April-July, 1775. Colonel Heath was commissioned Major 
General in June, 1775, and when the army was reorganized in July, 1775, 
Colonel Greaton became commander of the organization, then the 36th 
Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, and served through the year. All 
of these organizations drew their men from the same district, namely, Bos- 
ton and the surrounding towns. 

Colonel Heath's Lexington Alarm Regiment was made up as follows: 
"A Roll of the Staff officers in Colo William Heath's Regiment on the 
Alarm of 19th of April, 1775. 

Lt. Col. Thomas Aspinwall 

2d Lt. Col. William Mcintosh 

Major Aaron Guild 

Adjt. Moses Barker 



16 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Captains 



1st Lieutenants 



2nd Lieutenants 



Thomas White 
Lemuel Childs 
Robert Smith 
William Bullard 
Aaron Smith 
William Draper 
William Ellis 
David Fairbanks 



■ Caleb Croft Daniel White 

Lemuel May Isaac Williams 

Oliver Mills Ens. Silas Alden 

John Morse Nat. Lewis 

Moses Bullard Josiah Upham 

Thomas Mayo John Davis 
Jona Colborne 
Jona Colburn" 

Five companies were in Colonel John Greaton's Lexington Alarm Regi 
ment, officered as follows: 



Captains 



John Boyd 
Joseph Guild 

Sabin Mann 
Moses Whiting 
Samuel Payson 



1st Lieutenants 

Ebenezer Dean 
John Ellis 

Joshua Clap 
Jacob Davis 
Royal Pollock 



2nd Lieutenants 

Ens. Joshua Gould 
( Ebenezer Xewel 
(John Gay 
William Bacon 
Moses Draper 



April 18, 1775, Colonel Heath attended a meeting of the Committee of 
Safety at Menotomy in Cambridge, and on his return about sunset, he met 
eight or nine British officers who were out reconnoitering. He was awakened 
at daybreak on the following morning and informed that the regulars were 
marching towards Lexington. He hastened to the Committee of Safety and 
then took a cross road to Watertown. He sent some militia who had not 
marched, dow r n to Cambridge with orders to take up the planks and barricade 
the south end of the bridge and then take post there. He joined the militia 
just after Lord Percy joined the regulars. After the British had gained 
Bunker Hill on their retreat, he immediately assembled the officers at the 
foot of Prospect Hill, and ordered a guard to be formed and posted near 
that place and sentinels to be posted down to the neck. On the following 
morning he ordered men to properly care for the remains of the unburied 
dead. 

The Provincial Army was formed early in May and Colonel Heath's Reg- 
iment became the 21st Regiment, with the following line officers: 

"A Return of Gen'l Heath's Reigt, May 20, 1775, William Dawes Junr 
Adjt. 



COL. WM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 17 

Dorchester Camp 
Capt. William Bent 
Lieut. Theophlis Lyon 
Ens. Isaiah Bufsey 56 Rank & File including Sergeants 

Dorchester Camp 
Capt. Silas Wild 
Lieut. Nathl Niles 
Enfg Willm Harmon 56 ditto 

Dorchester Camp 
Capt. Elijh Vose 
Lieut. Phineas Pain 
Enfgn W r illiam Sumner 64 ditto 

Dorchester Camp 
Capt. Jacob Goold 
Lieut. Asa Dyer 
Enfg. Shaw 43 ditto 

Roxbury Camp 
Capt. Edwd Payson Williams 
Lieut. Samuel Foster 54 ditto 

Roxbury Camp 
Capt. John Boyd 
Lieut. Ebenr. Dean 
Ensg. Joshua Gould 59 ditto 

Roxbury Camp 
Capt. Joseph Guild 
Lieut. John Gay 
Ensg. Ifsac Ballard 54 ditto 

Roxbury Camp 
Capt. Moses Whiting 
Lieut. Aaron Payn 
Ensg. James Trifsdell 51 ditto 

Stationed at Hingham until further notice. 
Capt. Jotham Loring 
Lieut. Charles Cushing 
Ensgn. Elias Whiton 50 ditto 



493 
Capt. Job Cushing's Camp 56 

549" 



18 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



The following list of field officers is given in the Archives, dated May 23, 
1775: 

"General William Heath 
Lieut. Col. Lemuel Robinson 
1st Major John Greaton 
2nd Major Joseph Vose" 
In the Journal of the Provincial Congress, under date of June 16, 1775, 
we read the following: 

"Resolved, That a Commission be made out for Mr Heath as a Colonel 
of a Regiment of the Massachusetts Army." Five days later it was recorded 
that: 

"The President then delivered General Heath a Commission as Colonel, 
and another as a Major General ot the Massachusetts Army." 

"The Committee appointed to Take into Confideration the Returns made 
by Col's Heath & Robinson beg leave to Report, that the Sd Colls Heath & 
Robinson have not made Returns according to a late Refolve of this Congress, 
& ye sd Committee are of oppinion that the Sd Colls be Directed to make a 
Return forthwith Agreeable to Sd Refolves 

Josi Batchelder Jr 

Pr Order." 

Lieut.- Colonel Robinson then sent in the following: 

"A Return of Coll* Robinfon's Rest 9 Inlifted Men & the Numbers 



Capt William Bent 
Silas Wild 
Elijah Vose 
Jacob Gould 
Job Cushing 
Jotham Loring 
Jeams Lincoln 
Seth Turner 
W m Vinton 
Peter Perit 
Truant \ Company 



This return was accompanied by a letter from Colonel Robinson dated 
Roxbury Camp, June 16, 177;, stating that General Heath seemed to be 



Capt 


Subal- 
tern 


Sargt 


Corp 


Drum 
Fife 


Rank 
& Kile 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


54 




2 


4 


4 


2 


33 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




2 


4 


4 


2 


46 




1 


4 


4 





32 


11 


1 

20 


2 

42 


9 

42 


1 


25 


19 


466" 



COL. WM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 19 

inclined to make a return and that he "waited for his determination till four 
in the afternoon Till my patience was Exhausted & then Told him plainly 
that I would make Return and Left him" to go to Watertown to hand in 
the return. 

General Heath evidently sent in his return on the same day for in the 
Records of the Third Provincial Congress we read the following entry under 
this date, June 16, 1775: 

"General Heath and Col. Robinson returned a list of their companies, 
and whereas there are several of the same companies returned in each, 
Ordered, that Mr Batchelder, Mr Durfee, Major Perley, Major Fuller < f Mid- 
dleton, Major Bliss be a committee to consider the same and report." 

There was evidently some misunderstanding of the situation by the 
members of the Congress, they apparently considering that the returns 
made by the commanding officer of this regiment and the Lieut. -Colonel 
referred to two separate organizations. The controversy between the two 
officers as to who should make the return shows that they both referred to 
the same organization. The companies of Captains Lincoln, Turner. Vinton, 
Perit and Truant are only mentioned in this one return of Colonel Robinson 
and we have no other proof of their connection with the organization. 
Their names appear to have been hastily sent in by Colonel Robinson before 
the regiment was fully organized. Their records will not be included in the 
biographical sketches of members of this regiment. Lieut. -Colonel Robin- 
son's connection with the regiment ceased soon after as the following return 
will show. 

"June 23, 1775. 

A List of the Commifsion Officers of Major General Heath's Regiment, 
all of whom are Commifsioned Except the Staff Officers. 



Field Officers 

John Greaton Junr Lieut Colo 
Joseph Vose Major 

Jotham Loring 2d " 

Staff Officers 

Nathan Rice Adjutant 
William Vose Quarter Matter 
Surgeon and Surgeon's Mate not absolutely engaged but shall be returned 
scon. 



20 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Captains 



Edward Pay'n Williams 
Mofes Whiting 
Joseph Guild 
John Boyd 
Charles Cushing 
Elijah Vose 
Silas Wild 
Jacob Gould 
William Bent 
Job Cushing 



Lieutenants 

Saml Foster 
Aaron Pain 
John Gay 
Ebenezer Dean 
Elias Whiton 
Phineas Pain 
Nathaniel Niles 
Asa Dyer 
Theophilus Lyon 
Nathaniel Nichols 



Ensigns 



Jona Dorr 
James Trisdell 
Isaac Bullard 
Joshua Gould 
Benjamin Beal 
William Sumner 
William Harmon 

Shaw 
Isaiah Bufsey 
Jonah Oaks " 



The following towns furnished the men who composed the companies in 
this regiment: 
"Captains 

Edw. Payson Williams, Roxbury, Boston, Dorchester, &c. 

William Bent, Stoughton, Milton. 

John Boyd, Medway, Wrentham, Bellingham, Medfield, Roxbury. 

Elijah Vose, Dorchester, Milton, Braintree, Roxbury, Kennebeck. 

Joseph Guild, Dedham. 

Job Cushing, Hingham. 

Moses W r hiting, Roxbury, Needham, &c. 

Jacob Goold, Weymouth, Braintree, &c. 

Silas Wild, Braintree, Boston, Weymouth, Wrentham. 

Charles Cushing, Hingham, Boston, Scituate." 

In the records of the Provincial Congress, July 5, 1775, we read that "Dr. 
John Georges," was appointed "as Mate in Gen. Heath's Regiment." 

When the Army of the United Colonies was formed in July, Lieut. -Col. 
John Greaton was promoted Colonel and General Heath assumed the duties 
of Brigadier-General in the Continental Army to which office he had been 
commissioned June 22, 1775. 

July 11, 1775, as narrated by General Heath in his "Memoirs", Colonel 
Greaton "with 136 men, went on to Long Island, and burnt the barns, the 
flames communicated to the house, and all were consumed. An armed 
schooner, and several barges put off after the Americans, and some of the 
ships of war near the island cannonaded them. The detachment made their 
way for the fhore, and narrowly efcaped being taken. One man on the fhore 
who came to the affiftance of the detachment, was killed. It was fuppofed 



COL. WM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 21 

that feveral of the Britifh were killed and wounded. The fame day fix 
tranfports appearing to be full of men, arrived in Bolton Harbour." 

Under date of July 21, 1775, General Heath states that: — "Major Vose 
returned from Nantasket. The detachment under his command, brought off 
1,000 bushels of barley, all the hay &c — went to Light Houfe Ifland; took 
away the lamps, oil, fome gunpowder, the boats &c and burnt the wooden 
parts of the light-houfe. An armed fchooner and feveral boats with men, 
engaged the detachment; of the Americans, two were wounded." 

The following order applied to this regiment, assigning it to the post 
where it was to remain during the rest of the year: 

"Headquarters, Cambridge, July 22, 1775. 

. . . . 'General Heath's Regiment is to take post at No 2 in lieu of 
General Ward's." 

the strength of the regiment each month 

ff Non. Corns, t Rank and FileJ Total 

80 678 799 

58 483 578 

36 476 537 

60 475 572 

60 470 567 

44 461 535 

60 461 558 

The seventy-four officers of the regiment attained rank as follows during 
the war: 1 major-general, 2 brigadier-generals, 4 colonels, 2 lieut. -colonels, 7 
majors, 27 captains, 1 capt. -lieutenant, 17 first lieutenants, 7 second lieuten- 
ants, 4 ensigns, 1 adjutant (rank not stated) and 1 surgeon's mate. 

At least thirty-three of these officers had seen service in the French war 
or colonial militia, and no less than seventeen had held commissions in pre- 
revolutionary organizations. 

GENERAL WILLIAM HEATH was born in Roxbury, March 2, 1737. 
He was the son of Samuel and Elizabeth ( Payson) Heath. In his "Memoirs", 
he states that: "From his childhood he was remarkably fond of military 
exercises, which paffion grew up with him, and as he arrived at years of 

* Not including field officers in June. f Including fifers and drummers. 

t Including corporals. 



The 


following 


table 


shows 


through 


the 


year 






Date 




Com. Off. 


Sta 


June 18 






41* 




July 






34 


3 


Aug. 18 






21 


4 


Sept. 23 






33 


4 


Oct. 17 






33 


4 


Nov. 18 






27 


3 


Dec. 30 






33 


4 



22 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

maturity, led him to procure, and attentively to ftudy, every military treat- 
ife in the English language, which was obtainable. This with a ftrong mem- 
ory, rendered him fully acquainted with the theory of war in all its branches 
and duties, from the private foldier to the Commander-in-Chief." In June, 

1765, he was commissioned Captain-Lieutenant in ths 1st Roxbury Com- 
pany, Colonel Francis Brinley's Regiment. He was commissioned Captain in 
the 1st Suffolk Regiment, commanded by Colonel Jeremy Gridley, April 16, 

1766. He became a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany. This act brought him to the attention of the Colonel of the 1st Suf- 
folk County Regiment, who sent for him and requested him to accept the 
command of his own company. He was commissioned by Governor Barnard. 
He joined the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, May 6, 1765. 
He became a military favorite of Governor Barnard, who desired to maki 
him Colonel of the regiment and if it were in his power a general officer also. 
In 1770, he began to write patriotic addresses over the signature of "A Mili- 
tary Countryman." In these addresses he urged "the importance of militarv 
discipline and skill in the use of arms, as the only means under Heaven that 
could save the country from falling a prey to any daring invader." When 
Governor Hutchinson succeeded Governor Barnard, he relieved Captain 
Heath of his command, but the people of Roxbury chose him as the company 
commander and on the first meeting of the officers he was chosen Colonel of 
the regiment. He was a member of the General Court in 1761 and in 1771-4. 
October 7, 1774, he was representative from Roxbury in the First Provincial 
Congress at Salem and served on many important committees of that body 
including the following: "state of the province", one to "wait on Gen. Gage", 
another on the "defence and safety of the province," the Committee of Safety 
and chairman of a committee appointed October 29, 1774, to wait on the 
governor. In the records of this First Provincial Congress, December S. 1774, 
we read that "The Congress then proceeded to bring in their votes for the 
other general officers ; (General Thomas having been chosen already) the com- 
mittee having counted and sorted the same, reported that Col. William Heath 
was chosen." 

He was a member from Roxbury, of the 2nd Provincial Congress in Feb- 
ruary, 1775, and served on the committee on ordnance and the committee of 
safety. As narrated in ,the historical section of this article he attended a 
meeting of the last named committee at Menotomy, April IS, 1775, and on 
his return to his home at sunset met a reconnoitering party of the British. 
His activities on the following day have also been described in the above 



COL. WM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 23 

named section. During the next two months he was occupied with the 
double duties of Colonel of the 21st Regiment in the Provincial Army, and 
General. He was one of the members of the Council of War which on; 
Colonel William Prescott to fortify Breed's Hill in Charlestown on the night 
of June 16, 1775. In the records of the Provincial Congress for June 17, 
1775, his name appears as "eligible for Brigadier General." Two days later 
he was chosen Major-General by the same body, receiving his commission 
June 21, 1775. The record reads as follows: — "Ordered, that Mr. Haven ad- 
minister the oath to General Heath as colonel and major-general of the Mas- 
sachusetts army. The president then delivered General Heath a commission 
as colonel, and another as major-general of the Massachusetts army." On 
the following day he w r as commissioned Brigadier-General in the Continental 
Army. By virtue of the last named rank he commanded one of the brigades 
in General Putnam's Division, said brigade being made of his own regiment 
(Colonel Greaton's) with that of Colonels Paterson, Scammon, Gerrish, 
Phinney and Prescott. These regiments were stationed at Forts Xo. 1 and 
2 and the redoubt between them and in Chelsea, Maiden and Medford, also 
at Lechmere's Point. He was ordered with 300 men, December 18, 1775, to 
prosecute the work begun at the latter place. 

When the Continental Army was organized in January, 1776, the fol- 
lowing regiments were assigned to General Heath's brigade: Prescott's, Sar- 
gent's, Phinney's, Greaton's and Baldwin's. A change in the make up of 
this brigade was made before March 19, 1776, for on that date General Heath 
was ordered with his brigade, then composed of the 5th, 16th (Colonel 
Sargent's) 19th, 24th (Colonel Greaton's) and 25th (Colonel Bond's), to 
march to Norwich, Connecticut, on the route to New York. General Heath's 
Brigade (First) April 24, 1776, was made up of the regiments commanded 
by Colonels Learned, Prescott, Read, Bailey and Baldwin. All of the last 
named regiments in his brigade with the exception of that of Colonel Pres- 
cott, received orders May 25, 1776, to go to Paulus Hook. August 9, 1776, 
he was commissioned Major General in the Continental Army, and three days 
later he was assigned to the command of a division composed of the brigades 
of Brigadier Generals Thomas Mifflin and George Clinton. His division was 
so made up in the battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, two Massachusetts 
regiments, Colonel Israel Hutchinson's and Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent's, 
being in General Mifflin's Brigade. October 15, 1770, his division consisted 
of the brigades commanded by Generals Parsons, Scott and Clinton. After 
the battle of White Plains, he took command of the posts in the Highlands. 



24 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

In 1777, he was assigned to the command of the Eastern Department (suc- 
ceeding General Ward), including Boston, and had charge of the prisoners of 
Burgoyne's Army at Cambridge. June 29, 1779, he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the posts on the Hudson and was there during the remainder of the 
war except from June 2 to October 14, 1780, when he went to Rhode Island 
at the time of the arrival of the French. Several times after Arnold's treason, 
General Heath had temporary command of the Northern Army. When he 
started homeward June 23, 17S3, General Washington placed in his han Is a 
sealed letter "to be read at his leisure." This letter, written throughout by 
General Washington was expressive of his gratitude to and affection for Gen- 
eral Heath. "This letter," said he to Brissot de Warville, in 1788, "is a 
jewel which in my eyes surpasses all the eagles and all the ribbons in the 
world." General Heath said, " It is a little remarkable that the general by 
whose orders and under whose direction the first guard in the American Army 
was mounted at the foot of Prospect Hill on the evening of the 19th of April, 
1775, after the battle of that day, should happen, in the course of service, to 
be the last general of the day in the Ameri:an main army on the 10th of 
June, 1783, to inspect, turn off, and visit the guards. 

He returned to his farm after the war and was a member of the conven- 
tion which ratified the Federal constitution. He was State Senator in 1791- 
2, Judge of Probate of Norfolk County in 1793, and in 1S06 was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor but declined to serve. Drake speaks of him as "sturdy, 
honest and patriotic, and well-read in military science, but further states 
that as a general he was over cautious." "His pomposity of manner made 
him unpopular with his brother officers, one of whom gave him while at West 
Point, the title of ' Duke of RoxburyV He was of middling stature, light 
complexion, very -corpulent and bald headed, which led the French officers to 
compare him with the Marquis of Granby. His sword, epaulettes, and mil- 
itary sash, "worn during his service in the Revolution, belong to the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society. His biographer in the " History of 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company" v. II, p. 131, wrote that he 
"was a genuine republican, affable in his manners and firm in his principles. 
So plebeian was he that rather than allow his name to stand affixed to an in- 
stitution, or wear a device which is construed by many of our fellow-citizens 
the indication of an order, and distinction in society, he renounced the Soci- 
ety of the Cincinnati and withdrew therefrom." He lived to be the last sur- 
viving Major-General of the Revolution, and died January 24, 1S14. 



COL. WM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 23 

COLONEL JOHN GREATON of Roxbury, was the son of John and 
Catherine Greaton. He was born in that town, March 10, 1741. His father 
was the last proprietor of the "Greyhound" an inn in Roxbury. September 
10, 1765, the son John, leased of Samuel Sumner for a term of years a build- 
ing where Bampton's store stood in 1S7S, and sold West India goods. May 
10, 17G6, he was appointed 1st Sub-Brigadier to rank as Cornet, in the Gov- 
ernor's Troop of Horse. May 20. 1767, he was promoted to the rank of 4th 
Brigadier to rank as Lieutenant in the same command. This organization 
was composed of the elite of the city and formed the escort on all occasions 
of ceremony or commemoration. At a meeting of the citizens held in Rox- 
bury in November, 1774, he was chosen Lieutenant of the company com- 
manded by Captain William Heath. He was a prominent " Son of Liberty", 
and was one of a Roxbury committee of fifteen, to carry into effect the non- 
importation agreement. On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775 he com- 
manded a regiment of five companies. Samuel Hawes of Wrentham, in his 
diary wrote: "We met Col. Greaton returning from the engagement and he 
said that he would be with us immediately." 

When the Provincial Army was organized in May, 1775, he became Major 
of Colonel William Heath's 21st Regiment and Lieut. -Colonel soon after. He 
commanded several very successful foraging expeditions to the islands in 
Boston harbor, as narrated in the historical section of this article. January 
1, 1776, he became commander of the 24th Regimenc, Continental Army, 
said regiment being in General William Heath's Brigade in January-March of 
that year. March 19, 1776, he was ordered to march to New York and in 
the following month was ordered to proceed up the Hudson from New York 
on the way to Canada. He left Albany April 26, and May 6, had been gone 
from Fort George "some days", arriving at Montreal before May 10. In June 
he was at Sorel, and July 8, 1776, had returned to Crown Point. In a letter 
written on the 31st of that month he wrote: "Our fatigue and hardships have 
been very great. The men are in very low spirits. You would hardly know 
the regiment now, it is so altered in every shape." He joined Washington's 
Army in time to be at the battles of Trenton and Princeton, remaining after 
the expiration of his term of service until reinforcements arrived. 

January 1, 1777, he became commander of the 3d Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Line, and during the next six years made that regiment one of the best 
in the service. He was senior officer at Albany in 1779 and for a time was in 
command of the Northern Army. January 7, 17S3, he was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General in the Continental Army. He served until the 



26 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

« 

close of the war. He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the 
Cincinnati, and a member and officer in Christ Church, Boston, of which his 
brother James was rector. He only lived a few months after peace was de- 
clared, and died in Roxbury, December 16, 17S3. 

LIEUT. COLONEL THOMAS ASPINWALL of Brookline, was the son 
of Thomas Aspinwall and was born in Brookline, January 17, 1734. He was 
commissioned Captain in Colonel Eliphalet Pond's 1st Suffolk County Regi- 
ment, September 19, 1771. September 12, 1774, he was appointed on a 
committee of the Suffolk Convention, to wait on the Governor. He 
was Lieut. -Colonel of Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19 ; 1775, and led an improvised company from Brookline at 
that time. He served in the above rank twenty-three days and no further 
record of service in the war has been found. He died in Brookline, August 
1, 1799, aged G6 years. 

LIEUT.-COLONEL WILLIAM McINTOSH of Needham, was the son 
of William and Joanna (Lyon) Mcintosh of Dedham. He w r as born in Ded- 
ham, June 5, 1722, and lived there until the age of fourteen when he went to 
Connecticut for a year. He returned to Massachusetts and lived in Roxbury, 
learning the trade of a wheelwright. He served in the French war, his name 
appearing as a member of Captain William Bacon's Company. March, 13, 
1758, he was commissioned First Lieutenant and his commission and sword 
are at present owned by his great-grandson Mr. Richards B. Mackintosh of 
Peabody. Returning from the war he continued to reside in Roxbury until 
May 1764, when he removed to Xeedham and made that town his place of 
residence during the remainder of his life. He was Second Lieut. -Colonel of 
Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, 
serving fourteen days. He was a delegate from Xeedham to the Thirl Pro- 
vincial Congress in May, 1775. February 14, 1776, he was commissioned 
Colonel of the First Suffolk County Regiment, and under his leadership th : s 
regiment became one of the best known militia regiments in the State. It 
was one of the nine regiments to march to New York in 1776 un ler Major 
General Benjamin Lincoln. A letter is in the possession of Mr. R. B. Mac- 
intosh which was written by General Washington to Colonel Mcintosh from 
W T hite Plains, October 21, 1776, directing him to "move forward with the two 
Massachusetts regiments" under his commanl "if he did not find matters 
ready for the expedition to Long Island." In March and April. 177S. he 
served at the Roxbury lines and in Boston. From August 1 to September 



COL. \VM. HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 21 

16, 1778, he served with his regiment on an expedition to Rho le Island. In 
the summer of 1779, his regiment formed a part of General Lovell's Brigade. 
He was a member of the State constitutional convention in 1779, and the 
convention which ratified the United States constitution in 17.SS. He was a 
member of the board of selectmen of Needham for twelve years and repre- 
sented the town in the General Court five years. Mr. Greenwood, for many 
years the town clerk, said: '* Our town never had a citizen who was held in 
higher estimation than Col. Mackintosh." 

LIEUT.-COLONEL LEMUEL ROBINSON of Dorchester, was the eldest 
son of William and Anne (Trott) Robinson. He was born in Dorchester. March 
4, 1736, and was adopted in his boyhood by his grandfather, Thomas Trott, 
and brought up by him. He was Town Surveyor in 17GS-9 and 1771. In 
June, 1771, he was Captain of the train of artillery in Colonel Nathaniel 
Hatch's 3d Suffolk County Regiment. He was Selectman and Surveyor in 
1773-4 and Representative in the latter year. He was a member of the 
First Provincial Congress from Dorchester, in October, 1774, and Moderator 
and Selectman in 1775. In the published volume of " Journals of the Pro- 
vincial Congress" (p. 175), his name appears as Captain of a company in 
Dorchester, April 17, 1775. He commanded a regiment of ten companies 
in response to the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. Many of these 
companies were in 177G, in Colonel Benjamin Gill's 3d Suffolk County 
Regiment. May 19, 1775, ten companies petitioned to be in a regiment 
under his command. He was a member of the 3d Provincial Congress 
from Dorchester in May, 1775. In a list of officers of Colonel William 
Heath's 21st Regiment, Provincial Army, dated May 23, 1775, his name 
appears as Lieut. -Colonel. July 7, 1775, he was appointed chairman of a 
committee to procure a steward for General Washington. He was Colonel 
of one of the six special regiments for three months service formed in Janu- 
ary, 1776. Reverend William Gordon in his History wrote that "during the 
interval between their return and the provincials resorting afresh to the place 
of rendezvous, the land entrance into and out of the town, by the Neck, was 
next to unguarded. Not more than between six and seven hundred men, 
under Colonel Robinson, of Dorchester, were engaged in defending so impor- 
tant a pass, for several days together. For nine days and nights the colonel 
never shifted his clothes, nor lay down to sleep, as he had the whole duty 
upon him, even down to the adjutant, and as there was no officers of the day 
to assist. The officers in general had left the camp, in order to raise the 
wanted number of men. The colonel was obliged, therefore, for the time 



28 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

mentioned, to patrol the guards every night, which gave him a round of 
nine miles to traverse." He died of small pox, July 29, 1776. General J. 
Palmer in a letter to General Benjamin Lincoln dated July 31, 1776, wrote, 
"I regret the loss of poor Robinson." , 

MAJOR AARON GUILD of Dedham, son of Nathaniel and Mehitable 
Guild, was born in Dedham, April 5, 172S. He was an Ensign in Captain 
Eliphalet Fales's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Nichols's Regiment, from March 
13, to November 12, 1758. April 16, 1766, he was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant in 2nd Major Eliphalet Fales, Dedham 2nd Precinct Company, 
Colonel Jeremy Gridley's Regiment. In September, 1771, he was Captain of 
the 2nd Dedham Company, in Colonel Eliphalet Pond's 1st Suffolk County 
Regiment. He was Major in Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775, and arrived in time to fire upon the returning 
British troops on that day. February 14, 1776, he was commissioned 1st 
Major in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. Later 
he was a member of a committee appointed to make provision for the fam- 
ilies of non-commissioned officers and soldiers. In 17S0-81 he was a member 
of the committee of correspondence and safety. He resided at South Ded- 
ham, and died there February 3, 1818. 

MAJOR JOSEPH VOSE of Milton was the son of Elijah and Sarah 
(Bent) Vose. He was born in Milton, November 26, 1738 (not 1739, as 
stated by Drake. ) From a return dated Milton, August 8, 1757, we learn 
that he was in the Colonel's company, in Colonel Samuel Miller's Regiment. 
Drake states that he was Colonel of the District Militia in November, 1774, 
but no such record is found in the Archives. His name appears as 2nd Major 
in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, in a list of officers dated May 23, 
1775. A list made a month later gave him the rank of Major with Jotham 
Loring as 2nd, Major. He served in that rank during the year and when the 
reorganization took place at the end of the year he became Lieut. -Colonel of 
Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment in the Continental Army, and accom- 
panied that organization to Canada. From January 1, 1777, to September 
30, 1783, he served with honor as Colonel of the 1st Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line. On the last named date he was brevetted Brigadier-General, continu- 
ing to serve until the following November. He was at New York, Monmouth. 
Sullivan's Campaign in Rhode Island in 1778, and at Yorktown. He passed 
the later years of his life on his native farm in Milton. It is stated in the 
" History of Milton " that he built in 1761, the house in Milton, on the corner of 
Canton Avenue and Vose's Lane which was occupied in 1887, by his grand- 
children. He was an original member of the Massachusetts Society of the 
Cincinnati, and died May 22, 1816. 



(Continued from Vol. Ill, Xo. 4.) 

PERSONAL DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN OF 

MARBLEHEAD 



August 1774 

y 1 this day our Fs To Bn Sent 11 Cart Leaden with Teonicu fish to 
Boston 226 Quintol & a Cask of oyle as a Present to Inable the Rohed to 
Stand Arrived P. Trask from Lisbone Capt Mathews his Mark <p 
Sail J. Gonef (?) Pdem. Sail Sam Green 

2 Arived Brittanea Rappall 

3 Sailed John Barker Arived a brigg from Plimouth and Top sail 
Schooner 

4 Came from Salem the Old Cuntery Snow How T a Brigg Bound 
for Boston 

5 Nothing Remarkable 

6 Sailed Small Brigg for Boston A Ship Pased for Boston from Sea 
Sailed John Hooper for Europe Arived Thorn Stephens W Indas 

7 Arived Small Hopes from fishing 

8 Sailed Adventure Fittel Europe 

9 Arived Capt Tuck Saild off Snow 

10 Anchored hear a Brigg 

11 Arived a Topsail Sloop from New York 

12 Sailed small Brig Pased 3 Catts for Salem with troops 

13 A man made an oration at fery Arived two Briggs and Sum 
Schooners from sea A brig from Salem 

16 Sailed John Coller and Sam Gail for West Indais and Brigg Amhurst 
arived Robordson saild Jas Gay 

17 Mrs Joseph Lee hath a Dagtor Rain 

18 Arived a Brigg from Jemeacka (Jamaica) and a Brig from Salem 
1774 August ye 18 Sailed F Stacehy Came from Boston the Absalem 
Capt Sam Hooper's mother Buryed 

ye 20 Arived Capt B Calley from galmor Sailed Joseph Bubearr in S Trev- 
ets schooner Sailed Capt Calley for Philadelphia Sailed Rapall for Europe 

22 Arived Frances Granday Gibaralt Rain 

23 Arived a brig from Salem w Easterly 

24 Arived A Snow from and many wood men some other forer 
John O Johnson hat 12 And 12 of them 



30 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

25 Sailed Small Brig for Boston and sum Sloops and ye Jamacke Brgg 
Saild for Boston we hear the wrack of a Sloop was seen about 4 Leagues 
from Cape Ann by Chals Ballestor yesterday 

26 the three Catts Transports Sailed from Salam for Boston 

27 Mr Barnerd Buryed Saild for Boston y e Corne Sloop with a Present 

28 fair weather 

29 fair weather Anchored hear a brigg 

31 Sail a Singal Deck Brig Great Tolks about Gun Powder 

September y 1 1774 
Delivered a Suit of Riging for A Mifords great Doings dun at Cam- 
bridge 

y 2 Sailed a frigitt for Hallifax 
y 3 Arived ye Leviathan Smith Saild P. Trach 
y 4 Mr Waltor Preeched this day 

y 5 Arived B Boden from W Indais and William Bleaner from W Indas 
and a Strang Brigg ar'd Easy Rain 

6 Sailed ye Absalem Dupee W Inde Tis Said a Ship Is arived at 
Salem with womons Gun Powder on board Sailed His Majesty's Ship Scar- 
bour for England Tis said many Transports are going for more Troups 

7 Arived Will Andres W Indays 

8 Sailed a fleet of Ships from Boston Sum for Quebic &c Sailed 
Schooner two Brother Woodbury 

9 Ancored hear a Topsail Schooner 

10 Sailed J D Dennis pased a Ship from Sea for Boston tis sad 

that Colonel Hambelton's Rigamint Sat out on their mar:h from Salem for 
Boston at 5 o clock this morning tis said that the hole Rigamint was 2 
men Officers and all In eluded 

y 11 Arivd Capt" A Rofs from Swaga Ancored hear a Ship from Glas o 
for New York with ISO Pashers Our Orgin went at Chur.h 

12 Delivd Jonathan Nuttings Rig our Streets full of S:otch Laldis 
and Sum Lafsies & childer from two years and up war Is all ware able to 
come to America Ancored hear a Brigg from New York. 

14 Mrs Hinkley Buryed 

15 P Murry Preeched at Story Meeting 

16 Arived Pitt Packet Leech 

17 Sailed T. Stephen W. Inday and Small Brigg Saild to Salem 

18 Pased a Dubbel Dect Shoor for Salem Mr Baley Pree-'hed at Church 
and ye Scotch man at His Meating 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 31 

19 Sailed the Glasco Ship for N. York 

20 Anchored hear a Boston Denations from the Southward 

21 Arived Schooner Woodbr'.g w sou 

22 pased a Brig in Boston for Salem many wood men gone to Boston 

23 Sailed Brig Wolf Hill for Inday and Tuck for Europe 

24 Arived Abigal Bodan from Falmouth and Brigg from London 
at 8 o'clock this mornin the Destil house Took her at ny Conny of Being 
Burnt 

Sunday ye 25 Parson Farnswather Preeched at Church all day 
y 26 a Soldar asalted John Merit at the neck and he is to be tried by a 
Court Marfhal as soon as may be 

y 27 this day part of a training Sailed Capt Stiles in Schoone Hoppe 
Arivei Lewis and W Tucke boath from Europe Tucke from new Castll 
Lewis from Spain after Sun Sat Pased a Ship for Salem with all her Staysail 
3 top gallant Sails set blew Ends in Supposed to be a giner man 

28 Grand Training Ancored a Brig from Quebeck and Ship from Pli- 
mouth Waleman Saild Stiles in Schooner Hamle 

29 Came to Town Dr Epheram Bowen Came to Town a new Capt of 
Soldors to Releve Capt Mucal Rouf 

30 Sailed John Ducey and Am James Mrs Wendel Buried 
the Solder that asalted Mr John Merit Received 500 at the Barrick at the 
Neck he being Tried By a Cort marfhall Wipt by 2 Dru 

Friday Sept y e 30 1774 this day a Soldor belonging to Capt Maccalrouth 
was tried by a Court Marchal at Marblehead and was Condemned to Receive 
five hundred Stripe on the naced Back and Receivd them at the Barack at 
the neck 

October 1774 

y 1 Close weather Anchored hear a Learg Schooner with Two Stand- 
ing Top Sails and 2 Schooners Walemen 

y 2 Sum Rain pased a Brig to Salem. Parson Weeks Preeched at St 
Michals no preeching at Old mee ( ) 

3 Arived Capt Ben Calley from Philadelphia 

y 4 Sailed Capt Smith a Ship waleman arived many walemen arr a 
brigg arived Capt Potett from ye 

y 5 Moly went from Bilboa to y mold 

y 6 ten Dwelling houses an many Barns and hen coopes ware Burnt at 
Salem Pased a Learg Ship and two Brigs for Salem 



32 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

y 7 Sailed a Learg Top sail Schoon for Boston with flower 
y e 8 Came from Boston the Ship Labarty the Suthers Donation 

9 Sailed Schoone Leviathan Nucom for his winter lais and Sailed a 
number of Cod fishmen 

y 10 Came 20 wood sloops and up ward of 7 got 4 
October ye 11, 1774 Arived Ship Volture from Cadis 
ye 12 Anchored hear a Tender 

ye 13 Anchored hear a Learg Brig and an Other Tender turning about 
our harbour this afternoon Came in a Schooner from Nantues 

ye 14 one Tender at the Bottom of our harbour and one at Bacors Island 
looking out for Something a brig came from Salem and Sailed again 
Sailed Schoone Seafiower Smith 

Friday Oct. y 14 Two Tenders in our Harbour bour for What 

15 the two tenders went out and returned again Sailed a brig for 
Boston Anchored a Brigg from St Luce Belonging to Newbury Pased 
two Briggs to Salem 

16 at 5. o clock this morning Di Marther Bowen Consort of Cap Nathan 
Bowen Deed Sailed Brigg for Havn 

17 one Tender in Our Harbour 

18 Martha Bowen Buryed 

19 Ancored hear a Brigh from Salam and New Schooner 

20 Ancored hear a Donations Sloop and Sloaing Brig Dd Timothy 
Brown a Returned Schooner Leviathan from Cape Cod two Sett for her In 
Tendend Voyage 

y 20 Arived Coll Galloson Schoone Waleman 20 Barrels 
y 21 Ancored hear a Topsail Schooner from ( ) a greate num- 

ber of Wood Sloops in our harbour William Fostor Buryed 

22 12 Sloops & 2 Briggs Gon to Boston with Wood 

23 a Ship of[f] Cape Ann boath the tender came to Sail and Stood 
Down for the Ship Night Came on 

24 Arived a Ship from Bristol to Salem 

25 Sailed William Blaner W I a iarg Ship at Ancor Without ye Pigg 
Ro-ks in the Bay Sailed Brig Sat Paul N Gordon the Majt tender gave a 
Roy Salut 

26 Arived Capt Koles in Brig AfTeraca and Schooner that 
Witt rong Dd at Stoduo 

27 Sailed Leviathan Waleman 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 33 

2S Much Rain, the Magdalen Tender in our harbor the Halafax a 
Salem 

29 Anchored hear a Ship from London Sailed ye Hallafax for Sea 
a Lerrg Ship at Anchor Without Tincors Island 

30 Sailed Ship for Ransford Island Arivd Capt Allen from Cadis 

31 Arived Capt Jno Bartlit Pased two Ships to Salem Sailed J. 
Williamson 

November y e 1 1774 

1 Sailed y Small pox Ship for Salem the 2 tenders are along Sid a 
Ship under Beaverly Shore 

2 Arived Sloop Charlott Reed from W Ind W T e hear Capt R. Dollib 
is Dd at West lndis Sailed y e 2 Tenders for Boston to Winter Anchored 
two briggs from Sea Dd Mr Saml Coller 

3 We have upward of 40 wood sloops Pased a Ship for Boston from 
Sea Arived Capt John Coller West Indes 

4 Ancored hear a Brig Sailed W Andrews for Europe Mr Corbett one 
Friday November y 4 our Gentery keep as for the 5 day 

y 5 Arivd Cap V St Barb from Cadis Sum Rain Sailed a ship from 
Salem 

y 6 Arivei Sam Gale W Indais erarmy Brig gone to beverly 

7 Arived Brig Wolf Granday and Capt Merick Pased a Ship for 
Boston grait Guns fiering 

8 fair Weather Sailed many wood Sloops for Boston 

9 fair weather 

10 fair weather passed many faxes To Salem Anchored hear a Brig 
Sailed LeCraw pased a Ship for Boston 

11 Pased a Ship for Salam from Sea Smart Frost Many wood Sloops 
in our harbour 

y 12 Anchored a Brigg and a Top Sail Schooner both from Sea 

y 13 Anchored a Learg Sloop from ye Southward. 

y 14 Colo Orne 3 New Brig Came from Nubury 

y 16 Sum Rain Arved T Gail and W Dennes and P. F Polens 

17 fair 

18 wind N W Sailed B Boden anch a Learg Brig from Sea Sailed 
Brig Pitt Packet Leech and Hinclay and Northey the first snow fell this 
evening the first of their exersirceing in the New Barrick on Training field 
Hill 



34 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Friday November ye 18 the first Snow fell this fall 

19 Smart cold much wind N N W 

20 Smart Cold wind N W Sailed a Transport Brigg for Boston 

21 Arivd a Schoone with a four top 

22 a Smart gail of wind at E S E Arivd Tho Coller Londoner and 
many of our fishermen 

. 23 moderate weather 

24 arived Joseph Bubar W Indias 

25 Smart Gail of Wind at E S E Arivd Capt John Lee from West Inda 
and many of our fishermen 

26 fair weather Sailed two Ships and a brigg from Salem Pased a brig 
for Salem from Boston 

Novem 27 Anchored a Tend[er] and Learg Top Sail Schoone Sailed Two 
Topsail Schoones Wittwell & Herey Both Sick Mr Mansfield Preched for 
Wittwell and Read a Sumthing 

28 this fournoon Pased a Brig from Boston for Salem and a Ship from 
Sea for Salem and a Brig Arived hear and Two Topsail Schoones and a 
Learg Ship and many fishermen all a Rived this day wind S W Col Abbots 
mother is buryed 

29 uncommon warm for ye Season the Ship gone to Salam 

30 A Rived Capt David Rofs in Brig Unyon from Cadis Wife not well 
hath ye Woman about her for what 

December 1774 

December y e 1774 at half pas twelv at nite Wife had a dafter bourn or 
Rather this morning Arvd S. Grien 

2 Saild Morock arived a Schooner with Small Pox on board pased a 
Brig from Boston for Salem poor torn Sickened and Dd &c 

Friday December ye 2 Arrived a Schoone with Small pox on board 

3 Pased a Ship for Boston ani Brigg for Salem Arived George Gordin 
in Snow gurdoy 

4 Pased a man of war for Boston and Capt Brown for Salem London 

5 Returned a Schoone fiom Ransford Island Small Pox man M c 
Training Sum Rain I saw a Learg Ship going to Boston Arived a brig 
that Capt Hales Dd out of much rain wind N E rain 

6 a Town meetin Chose Congrise officers much fogg Sum Rain 

7 Anchored a Top Sail Schoone and a Ship'from London Fellows 

8 Arived Stephen Bleaner falmouth 



. 



X 698878 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 35 

9 Much Rain Anchored two Brigs wind N E 
Friday y e 9 Pased His Maj Ship Boyn 70 guns for Boston 
y 10 Much Rain Many guns fiered in the bay a Schooner went out in 

Serch of Ship 

11 Wind N W Sailed a Brig for Boston this afternoon Saild a Ship 

from Boston Smart cold We hear 14 Children are Christened at Storys 

meeting one at Church We hear the third Ship from England is a Rived 

at Nantasket 

y 12 Smart Cold 

y 13 Raw Cold Sailed mainy Sloops and Schooner for Boston Sum 

with Goods and Sum with Wood 

y 14 Sailed a new Brigg for Boston I saw a Ship in Kings Ley with four 

Top Sail Lused and a flagg at four Top mast head 

15 Thanks Giveing 

16 Sailed Brig Aferaca Coles and Capt W St Bable and Biles in Knot 
Pedricks Sch 

17 pased two brigs from Boston for Salem the Asah and Boyn Men 
of Wor Gott to Boston 

18 Pased or Anchored at Nantas[ket] His majesty's Ship Sumerset of 
64 guns 

Monday Decern y 19 1774 Arived Schoon Joseph Coffen mast[er] from 
y 6 Cost of Afferaca Waleman 

20 Sum more moderate 

21 Smart Cold 

22 Sum Snow 

23 Sum Snow 

24 Sum Snow 

25 Sum Snow and Rain Arivd Capt Joseph Proctor from 

26 much Snow 

27 Clear and Cold Sailed a F Schoone and Top Sail Sloop for Boston 
Arived Brigg Trubbet Master from 

28 Smart Wind Easterly Snow Arivd Sing Clier from falmouth 

29 Sum Snow a Sloop Stove on Skiner's head to Pieceses 

30 Pased His Majesty's Ship Lively from Boston for Salem no End 
Sign out on Bord Ship as She Pased Sailed W Tucker London 

31 Clear and Cold Sailed Corbit in Capt Mugford's Sch and Aleck Rofs 
in T G Sch 



Jpcjparfmtttt of th^mftiranlJaolutinn. 



Frank A.Gar.dner.M. IXEd.tor. 



State Sloop Defence 

(This name was borne by many vessels 
of various rigs and strength during the 
Revolution, the most notable one being 
the Connecticut State vessel commanded 
by Captain Seth Harding. This brig has 
been erroneously credited to Massachusetts 
by Maclay in his "History of American 
Privateering", pp. 66-7, and in the "United 
States Navy, 1775-1853." She accom- 
plished glorious work for the United Col- 
onies on the first anniversary of the battle 
of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1770, when in 
company with the Continental armed 
schooners "Lee", Captain Daniel Waters; 
"Warren", Captain William Burke; "Har- 
rison", Captain Charles Dyer, and "Frank- 
lin", Captain Samuel Tucker, capture was 
made of the British transports "Lord 
Howe" and "Annabella" with 200 regulars 
of the 71st Regiment of Highlanders and 
on the following day the "George" and 
*'Anne" with a hundred more from the same 
regiment. In the "Records of Connecticut 
Men in the War of the Revolution", it is 
stated that in April, 1778, this Connecti- 
cut "Defence" and the "Cromwell" fought 
and captured the "Admiral Keppel" and 
the "Cyrus", English letters of marque 
and brought them to Boston. In March, 
1779, she struck a reef near Waterford, 
Connecticut, and sank.) 

The subject of this sketch was a vessel 
of a later date, belonging to Massachusetts 
as shown in the following documents: 

"List of officers, Seamen and Marines 
Belonging to the Sloop Defence in the Ser- 
vice of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, James Nivens Esqu Commanding 



Time of Entry 
June 18, 1781 



Names Rank 

James Nivens Captain 

Benjamin Slater Lieutenant 

Thomas Parson Low Master '« •• " 

John Thayer Surgeon " is, " 

James Lambert Lieut, of Marines July 1, " 

CAPTAIN JAMES NIVENS (or Nev- 

ins) served as Master on the State bri^an- 
tine "Tyrannicide" from January 1, 1779, 
to April 30, 1779 , under Captain Allen 
Hallet. May 18, 1779, he was commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant to serve on the 
same vessel under Captain John Cathcart. 
He was engaged to serve in the same rank 
on that vessel June 24, 1779, and went on 
her in the disastrous expedition to Penob- 
scot in the following September. He was 
First Lieutenant on the State ship "Mars", 
Captain Simeon Samson, on her voyage to 
France in 1780. March 18, 1781, he was 
engaged as Captain of the last named ves- 
sel and he commanded her until June 12, 
following. June 18, 1781, he was engaged 
as Captain of the State sloop " Defence." 

LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN SLATER 
was commissioned July 3, 1779, Master on 
board to State brigantine "Tyrannicide", 
Captain Simeon Samson. He was engaged 
June 12, 1780, as Second Lieutenant of the 
State ship "Mars", commanded by the 
same officer as the last named vessel, Cap- 
tain Simeon Samson. March 18, 1781, he 
was engaged as First Lieutenant on the 
same vessel Captain James Nivens and 
served until June 12, 1781. Six days later 
he was engaged as Lieutenant on the State 
sloop "Defence," Captain James Nivens. 

MASTER THOMAS PARSON LOW 
served first as boatswain on the State 
brigantine "Rising Empire", Captain Rich- 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



37 



ard Whellen from May 1, to September 4, 
1776. July 10, 17b0, he was engaged as 
Master on the State ship "Mars", com- 
manded bv Captain Simeon Samson, and 
served until March 12, 1781. Six days 
later he was engaged to serve in the same 
rank on the same vessel under Captain 
James Xivens, this service terminating 
June 12, 1781. June 18, 1781, he was en- 
gaged as Master of the State sloop "De- 
fence", Captain James Nivens. 

SURGEON JOHN THAYER was en- 
gaged June 29, 1781, to serve on this ves- 
sel and we have no record of any earlier 
service 

LIEUT, of MARINES JAMES LAM- 
BERT was engaged to serve in that rank 
on this vessel, July 1, 1781. We have no 
knowledge of any earlier service by him. 

We know that the cruise was successful 
and that two or more captures were made, 
for in a list of officers and crew of the 
sloop "Defence", given in July 29, 1781, 
the names of thirteen prisoners are ap- 
pended. No names of captured vessels 
are given. Further proof of these cap- 
tures is shown in the following list of 
" Provisions & Sundrys Expended on Board 
the Sloop Defence and her Prizes, begin- 
ning July 21, 17S1, to August 1, 1781." 

Served July 21 Remaining August 31 
Bread (pounds) 3000 1132 

Pork " 1320 347 

Beef " 1240 269 

Beans (bushels) 8 3 3-4 

Rice (pounds) 700 270 

Butter " 54 none 

Flour " 369 91 1-2 

Sugar " 224 29 1-2 

Coffee " 55 48 1-2 

Rum (W.I.) (gals) 35 32 1-2 

Rum(N.E.) " 1613-4 15 3-4 

Vinegar " 32 17 1-2 

Candells (lbs) 46 3-4 12 3-4 

This includes only the more interesting 
items of a long list. 

"Abstract of undischarged Men taken 
from the Roll of the Sd Sloop Defence 
Capt Jas Nivens 

Wages due 
Benjamin Slater Lieut. 26:02:08 

Thos Parson Lowe Master 19:12:00 
John Thayer Surg.Mate 8:14:00 etc. 

Service from July to Sept. 1781." 

The term of service in the first cruise was 
from June 18, 1781 to July 18, 1781. A 
list of "Rations Due to the Officers on 
Board the Sloop Defence, James Nivens, 



Esqr Commander", dated Boston. July 23, 

1781, shows a '"ration" for the above 
month's servics to consist of '.'A poun is 
of bread, 46 1-2 pounds of beef, 31 half- 
pints of rum, 31 pounds of potatoes and 
9 1-4 ounces of butter. Captain Xivens 
was allowed three such rations, Lieutenant 
Slater two, and Mr. Low and several petty 
officers named, one each. 

The five officers whose names appear 
above received their discharge from the 
"Defence", September 26, 17S1, and we 
have no record that any of them saw 
further service in the war. There is on tile 
in the Archives an order signtd by Lieu- 
tenant of Marines James Lambert, July 5. 

1782, "for wages due him for service on 
the "Defence." Another document in 
the same depository shows that the 
amount of £8:14:00 was due Surgeon 
John Thayer and was still unpaid, Slay 
21, 1785. We can find no further mention 
of the "'Defence", after September 26, 17S1. 



Birthplace of General John Glover 

The name of General Glover is so closely 
connected with the good old town of Mar- 
blehead, through his position as com- 
mander of the famous "web-footed" Regi- 
ment, and his long and useful life spent in 
that town, that it is often forgotten that 
he was born in Salem. The editor of this 
department has never seen any statement 
concerning the location of his birthplace 
but a diligent searching of the Essex 
County wills and deeds has resulted in 
establishing the site beyond question. 

General John Glover, the revolutionary 
hero, was the son of Jonathan 3 and Tabitha 
(Bacon) Glover, grandson of Jonathan 2 
and Abigail (Henderson; Glover and great- 
grandson of John 1 and Mary (Guppy) 
Glover. Jonathan 2 (wife Abigail), house 
carpenter, purchased of James Brown of 
Newbury, glazier, June 17, 1710, a lot of 
land on the eastern side of Prison Lane in 
Salem, measuring 40 poles, bounded on 
the north by "Prytherches" land, on the 
east by land of Nathaniel Gedney, and on 
the south by land of Samuel Pickworth. 
(Essex Deeds, book 23, leaf 187.) Jona- 
than 3 and Benjamin Glover', sons of Jona- 
than ? (as shown below) built a house upon 
this lot, Jonathan occupying the northern 
half and Benjamin the southern. Jona- 



18 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



than 2 was born December 14, 1702, and 
married February 23, 1726-7, Tabitha 
Bacon of Salem. They had children as 
follows: Jonathan an 1 Samuel (twins), born 
June 13, 1731; John (later the General) born 
November 5, 1732 and Daniel, born Jan- 
uary, 1734. Jonathan- died in August, 1736, 
and" in the inventory of his estate taken 
November 25, 1736, mention is made of "a 
piece of land on the East side of the Prison 
lane containing 34 Poles or thereabouts 
with a dwelling house standing on the mid- 
dle sd of the Front of said Land and a well 
on the Back side of sd House in said land, 
and a Divisional fence running East & 
west, Ranging with the middle of said 
House & well which Hou-e & well was not 
shewed us, by the administratrix; as the 
estate of the deceased Because it was built 
Principally as she said by the eldest sons 
of the deceased. The sd 34 Poles of land 
we vallue att ninety pounds. £90:00:00." 

The total value of his real estate was 
£814:00:00. (Essex Probate Files No. 
11029.) 

Jonathan 3 died in August, 1737, and his 
heirs continued to own this property until 
March 31, 1762, when the four sons above 
mentioned with their wives, conveyed to 
Gamaliel Hodges "a certain piece of land 
in Salem near the church with i of a 
dwelling house on same", bounded at this 
time by the street on the west; land for- 
merly of John Webb on the north; land of 
Robert Williams on the east and land of 
Benjamin Glover's heirs on the south. 
(Essex Deeds, book 124, leaf 167.) In the 
inventory of tne estate of Gamaliel Hodges, 
May 1, 1769, mention is made of "$ hoase 
and woodhouse & land improved bv Capt. 
Putnam. £200:00:00." (Essex Probate 
Records, book 345, leaf 347.) 

The Captain Putnam mentioned was 
Captain Bartholomew Putman, son-in-law 
of Gamaliel Hodges. The property re- 
mained in the hands of the heirs of Gama- 
liel Hodges until May 28, 1807, when Bar- 
tholomew Putnam, wife Sarah; Samuel 
Ward, Esq., wife Priscilla; Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch, wife Pody; and Jonathan and Joseph 
Hodges, conveyed it to Gamaliel Hodges 
Ward. (Essex Deeds, book 182, leaf 30.) 
The lot measured 42 feet on the western 
front on the street, 39 fen on the eastern 
side, and was 129 feet deep, bounded on 
the north by land of Benjamin Pickman 



and on the south by land of the heirs of 
Nathaniel Ropes, deceased. Gamaliel Hod- 
ges Ward sold the property, "being the 
same that I purchase 1 of Bartholomew 
Putnam and wife and others" May 28, 
1S0S, to Moses Townsend, Esq., October 
26, 1811. (Essex Deeds, book 106, leaf 
77.) He held it until April 14, 1825, when 
he sold it to Michael Shepard, the meas- 
urements and boundaries being the same 
except on the southern side where the ad- 
joining lot was owned bv Jonatnan Ward. 
(Essex Deeds, book 240, leaf 24.) Two 
months later Miehael Shepard bought of 
Benjamin Pickman, Widiam Pickman, 
Love Rawlins PicVman and Isaac Osgood, 
wife Mary, of Andover, the lot next north 
of this, which had a frontage of 47 feet, 3 
inches on St. Peter street, a d.-pth of 120 
feet on the south and 130 feet on the north. 
It was bounded on the north by land of 
Jeremiah Ames, on the ea->t by land of 
John Osgood and on the souti by land 
"late of Mo-:es Townsend". (Essex Deeds, 
book 240, leaf 246.) These two lots com- 
bined gave to Michael Shepard a frontage 
of 89 feet, 3 inches on St. Peter street. 
January 3, 1S26, Michael Shepird sold to 
Michael Webb, a small lot of land in the 
south-western corner of this property, said 
lot thus sold, measuring 26 ft. 1 inch on 
the western side of St. Peter street, and 
having a depth of 90 feet. (Essex Deeds, 
took 241, leaf 61.) This was bounded on 
the south by land of Jonathan Ward and 
on the north and east by land of the pro- 
prietors of the Second Baptist Church, 
Michael Shepard having conveyed the re- 
mainder of his large lot to them, about 
the same t'me. (Mav 1, 1826, Essex 
Deeds, book 240, leaf 246.) By the unequal 
division of the Michael Shep„rd property 
the northern line of the Jonatnan Glover lot 
was obliterated, but the southern line of 
the half portion which belonged to Jona- 
than' Glover, the father of General John, 
remains unchanged to this day, and runs 
through the middle of the double brick 
house numbered 26-28, St. Peter street, 
As we know that his half measured 42 feet 
on the street (see Essex Deeds, book 182, 
leaf 30), we know that it included 16 feet 
of the frontage of the present St. Jean de 
Baptiste Church, the present owners of the 
Second (or Central) Baptist Church prop- 
erty. 

(To be continued.) 



A Continuation of the Genealogical Dictionary of Eneex County Families, compiled until 
Oct., 1909, by Sidney Per ley, Esq., in The Essex Antiquanun. 

Jftamtly (!ktt?al0gt£s 

LUCIE MARION GARDNER, A.B., Editor 

Emcx wm the firrt county Fettled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and all the records of early Ma^Mchnsett* familie* 

found in the probate, court and town records of this county prior to the year N«i are j-athered 

and published here in alphabetical form, and arran.-cd genealogically when pouible. 



174 

John Burnam 5 , son.of Lieut. Thom- 
as and Margaret (Boardman) Burnam, 
was baptized in Ipswich, June 2, 1722. 
He was a yeoman in Ipswich. He 
married widow Margaret Jewett, wid- 
ow of Ephraim Jewett and daughter 
of John and Mary (Hatch) Wood. 
She was bap. in Ipswich July 3, 1726, 
and married in Ipswich, int. May 1, 
1742, Ephraim Jewett. He died in 
Ipswich, Sept. 17, 1747. Widow Mar- 
garet Jewett was appointed admin- 
istratrix of the estate of her late hus- 
band, Ephraim Jewett, Sept. 28, 1747, 
and was "Margaret Jewett" as late 
as Mar. 25, 174S. She made oath to 
an account of the estate of her first 
husband, July 18, 174S, as "Margaret 
Burnam alias Jewett." (Essex Prob. 
Files, No. 14895.) John "Burnum" 
and his wife Margaret "late widow of 
Ephraim Jewett of Ipswich, dec", 
sold several pieces of salt marsh 
which had come to her from the 
estate of her first husband. (Essex 
Registry of Deeds, 92-53.) John 
"Burnum" w. Margaret "Son of 
Thomas Burnam Living in the First 
Parish in Ipswich", sold "half of an 
old common right in Lampson's Hill 
Pasture in Ipswich," Sept. 6, 1749. 
(Essex Deeds, 96-186.) Letters of 
administration w r ere granted to John 
Burnam, Sept. 25, 1752, on the estate 
of his father-in-law, John Wood, late 
of Ipsw T ich, John Burnam and his 



wife Margaret, "only child of Mr. John 
Wood, late of Ipswich, deceased," 
sold various other lots and rights in 

1753. (Essex Deeds 98-146 and 253 ; 
100-236 and 259; 102-25,142 and 
212; 157-90; 212-225.) Nov. 21, 

1754, he conveyed to Thomas Bur- 
nam, third, land on Chebacco road 
bounded by land of "my brother 
Joshua Burnam and land of Thomas 
Burnam, joiner, and by land belong- 
ing to James Burnam, late of Ipswich, 
deceased. The same deed states that 
the land was purchased "by my hon- 
ored father Burnam of John and 
Timothy Bragg". Reference is also 
made in the deed to his "honored 
Grandfather, Mr. James Burnam, 
dec." (Essex Deeds, 120-225.) He 
was declared to be a "lunatic non 
compos or diftracted," and Nathaniel 
Low was appointed guardian Nov. 
24. 1755. An inventory of his estate 
dated January 19, 1756, showed 
propertv valued at £708:05:01. (Es- 
sex Prob. Rec. 333, pp. 276, 353-5.) 
Letters of administration were grant- 
ed to his brother Nov. 27, 1758. 
( Essex Prob. Rec 335-523.) His wid- 
ow "Margreat" of Ipswich, conveyed 
3J acres of land to Charles Brooks of 
Ipswich June 25, 1761. 

NOTES 

Job Burnam is given in "The 
Burnham Family" (by Roderick H. 
Burnham), as the son of Lieut. 



40 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Thomas 2 [no. 3] and Lydia (Pingree) 
Burnham. (See Massachusetts Mag- 
azine, vol. IV, p. 64.) The author of 
these notes has found no confirma- 
tory evidence in any records to prove 
this relationship and therefore the 
notes upon Job and his descendants 
have been placed here at the end in- 
stead of in the family numbering. No 
record of his birth has been found 
but Mr. Roderick H. Burnham states 
that he was born in 1G73. From the 
Essex County Probate Files, no. 
12,493, we know that he m. Abigail 
Harris, daughter of John Harris, 
under sheriff of Essex County. John 
Harris, Sr., of Ipswich, whose wife (at 
that time) was Esther in his will 
dated June 16, 1714, left to his 
daughter, Abigail Burnham, £10: 
"which make her portion up to forty 
pounds". "Job Burnham who mar- 
ry ed to Abigail Harrifs" signed a 
document as one of the heirs of the 
estate of John Harris, Sr. In the 
"Ipswich Antiquarian Papers" p. 144, 
the statement is made that Abigail 
Harris, daughter of Marshal John and 
Bridget, was born March 5, 1675. 
Job Burnham removed to Scarbor- 
ough, Me,, and was a resident of that 
town in 1719. December 10th of 
that year he was chosen one of the 
town officers (Maine Hist, and Gen. 
Recorder, vol. Ill, p. 270-1). He 
was a selectman March 20, 1730. 

Probably before going to Scarbor- 
ough he located for a time in New 
Hampshire as a Job Burnham wit- 
nessed a document signed by Walter 
Allen of Berwick, York Deeds, bk. 
IV, vol. 110, Sept. 25, 1695-6, and a 
Job Burnham paid taxes at Hamp- 
ton Falls, N. H., in 1709. (N. E. 
Hist. Gen. Register vol. 28, p. 375. ) 



He had granted to him by Thomas 
Harris of Dover, N. H., a tract of 
upland in Scarborough, Me., contain- 
in;,; 50 acres. (York Deeds, Bk. XII. 
vol. SS). He witnessed the signature 
of William Burrigh? of Xewtowne, 
Middlesex County, Massachusetts to 
a deed of land at Black Point. York 
County, Me., to Thomas Harris, yeo- 
man, of Dover, N. H.. Sept. 1<>, 171'.). 
(York deeds, Bk. X, vol. 6:].) Job 
Burnam of "Blew Point" in Scarbor- 
ough, York County, Maine, purchased 
of James Taylor of Cape Porpoise, 
30 acres of upland and 25 acres of 
marsh formerly in the possession of 
Jonas Bvllie (alias Barger) Oct. 25, 
1720. (York deeds, Bk. XI vol. 142.) 
Job Burnam and others of Scarbor- 
ough, York County, Maine, were 
granted land and marsh lying in 
Scarborough, the lot containing 36 
acres, by John Milliken, May 2, 1720, 
witness Daniel Burnum. (York deeds, 
Bk. XI, vol. 12S). June IS, 1732. 
Job Burnam of Scarborough (wife 
Abigail) granted to Jonathan An- 
drews of Ipswich, blacksmith, 50 
acres of land near the West road in 
Scarborough. (York deeds, Bk. XV. 
vol. 71). In his will dated April 1, 
175S (disallowed May 17, 1757), he 
bequeathed property to Rebecca 
Burnam "widow of my late son Dan- 
iel Burnam." He left to his son Job 
Burnam, Jr.. £5. His grandsons. 
Daniel and Thomas Burnam (sons of 
Daniel) were appointed his executors, 
and Robert, Samuel, Job, Rebecca 
and Solomon were named as other 
grandchildren by his son Daniel. In 
the history of Scarborough it is stated 
that "these grandchildren of our 
worthy pioneer left a numerous pos- 
teritv in the town." 



FAMILY GENEALOGIES 



41 



Children : — 

2 .—Job 1 , b. Ipswich, Dec. 9, 1698. Ips- 
wich Records. See below. 

3.— Daniel 2 , b. Ipswich, Sept. 19, 1700. 
Ipswich Records. Lived in Maine 
District. 



Job Burnam 2 , son of Job and Abi- 
gail (Harris) Burnam,was b. Ipswich, 
Dec. 9, 1698. June 5, 1727, he had 
land granted him at Scarborough, 
Maine. He was called Job "J un " m 
the document, and Job, Sen., and 
Daniel were mentioned. He m. in 
Marblehead 7br. 29, 1719, Hannah 
Martyn, daughter of Thomas and 
Elenor (Knott ) Martin. She was 
bap. in Marblehead July 8, 1716. 
(Marblehead Rec.) Elenor Martyn 
of Marblehead, wid., in a will dated 
Jan. 22 (probated July 16), 1759, left 
property to her daughter, Hannah 
Burnam, and mentioned property 
which she herself had inherited from 
her father, Dr. Knott. (Essex Prob. 
Rec. vol. 337, p. 1.) In the division 
of the real estate of Thomas Martyn 
of Marblehead in 1767, his daughter 
Hannah Burnam, was given her sev- 
enth and the signature of Job Bur- 
nam appears. (Essex Prob. Files, 
no, 17945.) Aug. 29, 1729, Job Bur- 
nam of Marblehead, County of Essex, 
purchased of Joseph Stevenson of 
Newport, R. I., 80 acres near Jones 
Creek near the river in Scarborough. 
(York deeds, Bk. XIV. vol. 103.) 

Children: — 

4. — Thomas 3 , bap. Marblehead, May 22, 
1720. See below. 

5.— Job 3 , bap. Marblehead, Sept. 22, 1723. 
See below. 

6. — Abigail 3 , bap. Marblehead. June 19, 
1726, m. Marblehead, Oct. 10, 1748, 
Jonathan Glover, son of Jonathan 
and Tabitha (Bacon) Glover. He 
was b. in Salem June 13, 1731, on 
what is now St. Peter street, the house 



standing on the lot next s<- uth of the 
present St. Jean Baptiste church. He 
was a brother of Gen. John Glover 
of the Revolution and attained prom- 
inence himself as a patriot serving as 
Colonel of the 5th Essex County Mil- 
itia Regiment, serving from Feb. 7, 
1776, until Feb. 1779, when he re- 
signed on account of ill health 

7. — Richard 3 , bap. Marblehead, Dec. 29, 
1728. See below. 

8. — Hannah 3 , bap. Marblehead, May 12, 
1732. 



Thomas Burnam 3 , son of Job and 
Hannah (Martyn) Burnham, was bap. 
in Marblehead May 22, 1720. He 
was a blacksmith in Marblehead. He 

m. Mary . He d. about 1762, his 

widow Mary was appointed adminis- 
tratrix July 26,1762. The inventory 
of his estate dated July 22, 1762 (?), 
showed property valued at £23:15:12. 
(Essex Prob. Files 41S1.) His widow 
was probably the "Mary Burnham" 
who married Aug. 10, 1762, Capt. Ed- 
ward Bo wen. 

Children: — 
9. — Mary 4 , bap. Marblehead. Aug. 5, 1753- 
10. — Joseph 4 , bap. Marblehead, May 4, 

1755. 
11. — S\rah Howard 4 , bap. Marblehead. 
Jan. 8, 1758. 



Richard Burnham 3 , son of Job and 
Hannah (Martvn) Burnham, was bap. 
in Marblehead'Dec. 29, 172S. He m. 
in Marblehead Aug. 13, 1758, Jane 
Coleman. He d. before May 4, 1766, 
the date of birth of his child "J ann y\" 
His widow Jane was appointed ad- 
ministratrix April 5, 1768, and John 
Burnham was appointed administra- 
tor Feb. 1, 1773. The account of 
John Burnham, deceased, was handed 
in by John's widow Mary, Mar. 27, 



42 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



1799. (Essex Prob. Files, Xo. 4100.) 
She was probably the "widow Jane, 
late of Marblehead" whose estate was 
administered in April, 1773, by John 
Burnam. (Essex Prob. Rec. 349- 
105 and 366-439.) 
Children : — 

12.— Richard 4 , bap. Marblehead, Oct. 26, 
1755, d. young. 

13. — Richard 4 ', bap. Marblehead, Jan. 1, 
1758. He was a mariner. He d. in 
in Marblehead Nov. 9, 1787. (Essex 
Prob. Files No. 4161.) 

14. — Coleman 4 , bap. Marblehead Aug. 6, 
1760. 

15. — Janny 4 ("posthumus"), bap. Marble- 
head, May 4, 1766. 



Capt. John Burnam and Mary 

Archibald "both of Marblehead" were 
m. in Beverly Aug. 8, 1776. He was 
probably the John Burnham who was 
granted letters of administration of 
the estate of "Jane Burnam, widow, 
late of Marblehead" April 5, 1773. 
(Essex Prob. Rec. 349-105.) John 
and his wife Mary conveyed to John 
Richardson of Marblehead their right 
to a "certain dwelling-house late of 
William Orne of Marblehead," by 
virtue of a deed of mortgage made to 
him by Joseph Orne et al March 26, 
1771. They had children: i. Francis 
Archibald, bap. Marblehead, Sept. 
30, 1787; ii. Azor, bap. Marblehead, 
Aug. 8, 1790. He died Marblehead, 
Aug. 25, 1798, aged 63. (Essex Inst. 
Hist. Col. v. XII, p. 49.) 



Abigail Burnam and Aaron Riggs, m. 
pub. July 10, 1774. — Gloucester Records. 

Abigail Burnham, m. Nov. 24, 1763, 
Isaac Allen, son of William and Mary 
(Ingalls) Allen. He was b. Aug. 3, 1740, 
and was a fisherman living in Ipswich. — 
Ipswich Rec. and Essex Antiquarian, v. IV 
p. 47. 



Abigail Burnam [of Chebacco int ] and 
William Goodhue, 34, m. June 2.», 1759. — 
Ipswich Rec. 

Mrs. Abigail Burnam and Moses Emmer- 
son of Durham, m. int. Nov. 27, 1761. — 
Ipswich Rec. 

Abigail Burnham and Abraham Channel 
m. Dec. 9, 1 770. — Ipswich Rec. 

Abigail Burnum and Benjamin Chote, 
m. int. May 23, 1707. — Ipswich Rec. 

Abraham Burnam of Hampstead and 
Mary Perkins, m. Topsfield, Feb. 11, 17(32. 
— Topsfield Records. 

Abraham Burnham of Gloucester m. Su- 
sannah Perkins, dau. of Daniel of Hamp- 
ton. She was b. Dec. 4, 1743, and d. 
Moultonboro in 1779. He m 2d widow 
Lydia Fuller (a Bradley from Haverhill) 
who d. at Groton, Vt. aged 104 y. 9 m. — 
N. E. Hist. Gen. Reg. v. XII p. 83. See 
Ipswich Family Xo. 104. 

Widow Ann Burr.ham d. May 19, 1759, 
aged 94 years. — Ipswich Records. 

Anna Burnam and John Foreland of 
Boston, m. pub. Oct. 10, 1749. — Gloucester 
Records. 

Anne Burnum and Isaac Davis, m. Mar. 
8, 1731-2.— Ipswich Rec. 

Betty Burr.ham of Dunbarton and Dan- 
iel Balch 3d, m. int. Apr. 21, 17S2. He 
was the son of David and Hannah (Perkins) 
Balch and was b. Topsfield Aug. 19, 1753. 
He died in Topsfield July 22, 1812, aged 
58 years. — Topsfield Records and Essex 
Antiquarian, V. VI, p. 9. 

Ebenezer Burnam (276) m. Ipswich, Nov 
15, 1792, Mary Dodge, dau. of Lieut. Isar 
and Elizabeth Dodge. She was b. Ipswic 
Jan. 5, 1772. They conveyed land at 
ferie's Xeck to Daniel Lummus, Jun., S 
22, 1798. (Essex Deeds, 164-224). She d. 
Ipswich, Sept. 11, 1799, a. 27 y. 8 m.— 
Bible Record. The Burnham Genealogy 

states that he m. 2d Hannah . A 

Hannah w. of Ebenezer d. Ipswich Mar. 
30, 1S28, a. 67 y. —Ipswich Records. 



FAMILY GENEALOGIES 



43 



Elijah Burnham of Salem. His wife 
Sarah united with the Tabernacle Church 
in Salem, Oct. 14, 1775. James s. of the 
above couple was bap. Oct. 31, 1775. — 
Essex Inst. Hist. Col. v. XXIII p. 245. 

Eliza[beth] Burnam and John Smith m. 
int. Jan. 10, 1707-8. — I pswich Rec. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Burnam and Samuel 
Griffin of Gloucester m. int. June 5, 1754. 
— Ipswich Rec. 

"Ms" Eliza [beth] Burnam and Moses 
May, m. int; June 19, 1756. — Ipsw>ch Rec. 

Wid. Eliza[beth] Burnam and Dea. Mark 
Haskal, m. int. Oct. 24, 1767. — Ipswich 
Rec. 

Elizabeth Burnam and William Elwell 
m. May 12, 1763. — Gloucester Records. 

Elizabeth Burnam of Ipswich and Sam- 
uel Griffin, 4th, m. pub. June 5, 1754. — 
Gloucester Records. 

Elizabeth Burnam and Joseph Leach of 
Manchester m. pub. Aug. 20, 1774. — Glou- 
cester Records. 

Elizabeth Burnam of GofTstown and 
Zaccheus Goldsmith, m. pub. Andover, 
May 18, 1 78 1 .— .4 ndover Records. 

Elizabeth Burnham m. George Jacobs 
(grandson of the guiltless victim of the 
witchcraft delusion — George Jacobs) at 
Wells, Me. October 21, 1742.— Essex Inst. 
Hist. Col. V. I, p. 53. 

Eunice Burnam of Lunenburg and Tim- 
othy Dorman, m. at Lunenburg May 27, 
1754. — B oxford Records. 

Frances Burnam and John Kindrick, m. 
int. May 29, 1703.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mrs. Hannah Burnam and William Gold- 
smith m. July 4, 1754. — Ipswich Rec. 

Hannah Burnam, widow, and Captain 
Thomas Choat m. Nov. 9, 1743. — Ipswich 
Rec. He was the son of John and Ann 
Choate.— N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. Reg. v. 
XV. p. 293. 

Hannah Burnam and William Gold- 
smith, m. Aug. 29, 1774. — Ipswich Rec. 

Hannah Burnam, wid. and Andrew Bur- 



leigh, Jr. m. Jan. 9, 1738. (Her name was 
given as probably "Boardma:r" in Massa- 
chusetts Magazine v. Ill, p. 273, as both of 
her children named in her will were 
"Boardman." Careful study of the re 
fails to throw further light on the prob- 
lem.) — Ipswich Rec. 

Hannah Burnham and Jacob Choate m. 
Nov. 10, 170S.— Ipswich Rec. 

Hannah Burnham and Fre lerick Horn 
both of Boston m. Jan. 16, 1761. — Salem 
Records. 

Jacob Burnum s. of Joseph Bumum of 
Cape Porpoise, Me., was placed under the 
guardianship of John Fitts of Ipswich Dec. 
22, 1760.— Essex Prob. Rec. 337-457. 

James Burnham m. Betsey Willet, dau- 
of John Willet, Ipswich, May 2, 1784. He 
was probably the James who died at sea 
in March, 1795. His widow married in 
Ipswich Apr. 19, 1804, Jabez Richards of 
Dedham, who was appointed guardian of 
Joshua, aged 16 and Betsey, ap,ed 19, minor 
children of "James late of Ipswich". Bet- 
sey was bap. Ipswich May 29, 1785, and 
James was bap. Ipswich, Dej. 9, 1787. — 
Ips. Rec. and Essex Prob. Files 4066. 

James Burnham m. at Rowley Oct. 11, 
1785, Mehitable Hidden of Rowley. They 
had children, George Tappan bap. May 20, 
1787; Betsey Storey bap. June 26, 1791; 
James bap. Oct. 27, 1793. — Rowley Records. 

James Burnham "lately died at sea" — 
Mehitabel, widow of James "who lately 
died at Sea", d. May 11, 1775. — Chebacco 
Church Rec. Ipswich. 

James Burnham of Gloucester m. Ruha- 
mah Low of Ipswich, in Ipswich Nov. 25, 
1770. (Int. Gloucester July 9, 1770.)— 
Ipswich Records. 

Jeremiah Burnham and Mary Stanwood 
were married in Gloucester Sept. 3, 1779. 
Their son David was born Aug. 6, 17S8. — 
Gloucester Records. 

Joanna Burnham m. July 19, 1755, Joel 
Haskell s. of Daniel and Sarah Haskell. He 



44 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



was. b. July 0, 1733.— Essex Inst. Hist. 
Col. v. XXXII p. 153. 

John Burnham, late of Marblehead, mar- 
iner. Letters of administration were 
granted to Mary Burnham, Oct. 1, 1708. — 
— Essex Prob. Rec. V. 366 p. 230. 

John Burnam, appointed administrator 
of the estate of John Burnam 1764. — Es- 
sex Prob. Rec. 341 pp. 117 and 147. 

John Burnam m. Ipswich Feb. 20, 1751, 
wid. Rebecca White. As Rebecca Coleman 
she married in Ipswich, Aug. 26, 1736, 
Jacob Lufkin. He died in Ipswich (Che- 
bacco) Feb. 23, 1736 [7]. Rebecca White 
wid. m. Ipswich Apr. 16, 1741, John White. 
Mrs. Rebecca White (wid) m. Ipswich, 
Feb. 20, 1751, John Burnam. The will of 
Rebecca Burnam wid. dated June 22, 1767, 
was probated Apr. 4, 1774. She d. Feb. 
14, 1774 ae about 65 years. She mentioned 
a sister Sarah Dow (a Sarah Colman m. 
Ipswich Dec. 30, 1746, Challice Dow) and 
a brother William Colman. — Ipswich Rec- 
ords and Essex Prob. Files No. 4159. 

John Burnam "supposed to have been 
lost on fishing voyage to ye Banks of ye 
Isle of Sables in the spring of 173S." — 
Gloucester Records. 

John Burnam and Sarah Andrews (dau. 
of William, see Essex Reg. of Deeds v. 153, 
p. 260) Pub. Gloucester June 11, 1774.— 
Gloucester Records. 

John Burnham and Betsy Riggs were m. 
Gloucester April 10, 1782. Their son 
Charles was b. Gloucester, July 26, 1784. — 
Gloucester Records. 

John Burnam son of Thomas Burnam 
was declared "non compos mentis" Xov. 
24, 1755, and Nathaniel Low was appointed 
guardian. — Ipswich Records. 

Jonathan Burnam was appointed admin- 
istrator of the estate of widow Elizabeth 
Burnham of Ipswich Feb. 6, 1718. — Essex 
Prob. Rec. 312, 481-499. 

Jonathan Burnam 3d, of Ipswich, fisher- 
man, conveyed to his son Jonathan Bur- 



nam 4th, blacksmith, 35 acres of land in 
Chebacco, his dwelling hou-e ''on the road 
from the Chebacco meeting house to the 
Hamlet meeting house, bounded south on 
Mill river, July 6, 1761.— Essex Deeds, 109 
-193. 

Jonathan Burnam and Abigail Ro«s m. 
int. Ipswich, Oct. 3, 1761. He was a 
blacksmith by trade. He was called 
"fourth," in the Essex Deeds 114-81. See 
Essex Deeds 141-233. 

Jonathan Burnham [see Xo. 31] d. Oct. 
9, 1779, aged about 84 or 85. In the rec- 
ords this was written Josiah and the name 
Jonathan was written in. — Ipswich Vital 
Records VII, p. 507. 

Jonathan Burnam, fourth, m. Ipswich 
Oct. 12, 1749, Mary Rust.— Fourth ch. 
Records, Ipswich. 

Joseph Burnum m. Mary Brackenbury 
in Ipswich Oct. 20, 1731. Their son Jo- 
seph was bap. Dec. 24, 1732, and the moth- 
er d. Sept. 4, 1733. The guardianship of 
the minor son, Joseph, son of "Joseph late 
of Ipswich" was granted to John Kinds- 
man Feb. 9, 1746.— Essex Prob. Files 4135. 

Joseph Burnham, wife Zeruiah, made a 
will dated Dec. 3, 1744, which was pro- 
bated April 28, 1746. (Essex Prob. Files. 
Xo. 4134.) She m. second July i6, 1750, 
Jacob Boardman, son of Jacob and Martha 
(Rogers) Boardman. In 1763 she was of 
unsound mind and was being boarded with 
James Pratt in Rowley. She was living in 
1769. Joseph Burnham apparently had 
no children. — Essex Antiquarian IX, 147. 

Joseph Burnum, Jr. and Margaret Allice 
m. int. published Ipswich Jan. 11, 1735.— 
Ipswich Records. 

Joseph Burnham of Chebacco m. Hannah 
Toppan of Gloucester Apr. 2, 1765. — Ips- 
wich Records. 

Joseph Burnam of Ipswich, carpenter, 
had a son Benjamin bap. Jan. 12, 17:v.'. 
Aaron, infant son of Joseph Burnam, 
carpenter, died July 10, 1745. — Ipswich 
Records. 



FAMILY GENEALOGIES 



4o 



Joseph Burnum, Jr. and Sabiah Wood of 
Topsfield m. int. Ipswich, Feb. 26, 1736. — 
Ipswich Records. 

Joseph Burnham and Susanna Whipple 
m. int. Ipswich Aug. 2, 1760. — Ipswich 
Records. 

Joseph, son of Lt. Jonathan of Chebacco, 
d. Dec. 6, 1736. — Ipswich Records. 

Joseph Burnam of Salisbury. His son 
Jacob was bap. Dec. 1, 1745, and his son 
Umphrey Feb. 16, 1746. — Essex Inst. Hist. 
Col. v. 16. 

Joseph Burnam, w\ Mary owned the 
Covenant in the 1st Ch. Salisbury, Dec. 1, 
1745. — Essex Inst. Hist. Col. v. XVI p. 61. 

Judith Burnham and Francis Brown 
m. Dec. 31, 1778. — Ipswich Rec. 

Loues Burnham, b. Essex, d. of Ira and 
Lucy, d. Manchester, Oct. 13, 1848, a. 88 
y. 2 m. 9 d. — Manchester Records. 

Lucy Burnam and Daniel Jackson, m. 
pub. Newbury, Nov. 13, 1754. Their son 
Daniel b. Feb. 26, 1755. — Gloucester and 
Newbury Records. 

Lucy Burnham (possibly No. 294 
Ipswich Family) m. Isaac Abbott of Con- 
cord, N. H , Feb. 28, 1771. — Ipswich Rec. 

Marg[are]t Burnam of Sutton and Rich- 
ard Mower m. at Sutton, Feb. 10, 1763. — 
Salem Records. 

Margaret Burnham of Ipswich m. in 
Rowley Aug. 27, 1764, Retire Bacon, son 
of Mighill and Margaret (Shattuck) Bacon 
of Salem. He was bap. Salem, Apr. 17, 
1720. He m. 1st Mary Hale of Boxford. 
They lived in Boxford, then Wenham and 
Ipswich and later in Peterborough ship, 
N. H. They were living in 1768. — Essex 
Antiquarian v. V. p. 25. 

Martha Burnam of Ipswich m. Apr. 7, 
1768, Benjamin Bennett, s. of Aaron and 
Bethiah (Stone) Bennett. He was b. Man- 
chester, Aug. 1, 1739. — Essex Antiquarian 
v. VIII p. 91. 

Martha Burnham m. Thomas Perkins as 
his second wife. He was b. Feb. 19, 1728. 
— Essex hist. Hist. Col. v. XII, p. 3. 



Martha Burnham an 1 Simeon Wells, m. 
March 9, 1770.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnham and William Story, Jr. 
m. Mar 22, 1770.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnham and Jeremiah Story, Jr. 
m. Nov. 19, 1761. — Ipswich Rex. 

Mary Burnham of Salisbury. Her daugh- 
ter Charlotte was bap, 1st Church, Salis- 
bury, July IS, 1762.— Essex Institute Hist. 
Col. v. XXI p. 137. 

Mary Burnham of Salisbury m. Richard 
Heyden Crisp, 1st Church, Salisbury, Dec. 
3, 1772. — Essex Inst. Hist. Col. v. XXI, p. 
146. 

Mary and Jonathan Shatchwell, m. int. 
Dec. 6, 1729.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnum and Samuel Storv, Jr. m. 
int. Dec. 23, 1710.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnam, widow, and Nathaniel 
Emmerson of Douglastown, m. int. Nov. 
15, 1749.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnam and Ebenezer Cogswell, 
m. Nov. 22, 1749.— Ipswtch Rec. 

Mary Burnam, widow, and Nath(anie)l 
Cavis, m. May 27, 1760.— Ipswich Rec. 

Mary Burnam of Ipswich (Ipswich Fam. 
No. 173) and Joseph Grinleaf m. Jan. 9, 
1735-6. — Newbury Records. He was the 
son of Joseph and Thomasine (Mayo) 
Greenleaf. He died about March, 1751, 
and she was granted letters of administra- 
tion on his estate on the 30th of that 
month. The inventory was signed by her 
Apr. 15, 1751. She was called widow Mary 
Greenleaf, alias Peabudy, in the division of 
the estate of her first husband J^y 1, 1754. 
On the 2nd of the previous month she had 
married in Newbury, Nathan Peabody, 
son of Deacon Nathan and Hannah (Put- 
nam) Peabody. He was born in Boxford, 
March 13, 1716. and m. first, Nov. 29, 1739, 
Sarah Bradford of Boston. The will of his 
widow Mary Peabody of Newburyport, 
dated Jan. 16, 17C9, was proved March 29, 
1769.— Peabody Genealogy pp. 29-30; Es- 
sex Probate Files; Newbury Records and 
Greenleaf Genealogy. 



46 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Mary Burnham, wid. d. lethargy and old 
age Sept. 27, 1816 a. 87 y. 5 m. 7 d. — Ips- 
wich Records. 

Molly Burnham and John Brown, 3d, m. 
Dec. 3, 1771. — Ipswich Rec. 

Nathan Burnam and Hannah m. 

Nov. 22, 1754. (The above appears in the 
Ipswich Records but is probably a mistake 
in date, and refers to the marriage of Na- 
than Barnam and Hannah Burnam which 
is recorded as occurring just ten years prior. 
—Nov. 22, 1744.) —Ipswich Rec. 

Polly Burnham of Dunbarton, N.H.,and 
Israel Perkins, m. int. Feb. 23, 1794. — 
Tops field Records. 

Phoebe Burnham of Wenham and Na- 
thaniel Poland, m. at Wenham, Dec. 27, 
1770. — Beverly Records. 

Phoebe Burnam (Ipswich Fam. No. 52) 
was not the Phoebe who m. 1st John 
Adams and 2nd Nathaniel Cross as stated 
in the Massachusetts Magazine v. IV, p. 
67, but Phoebe (Ipswich Family No. 121), 
dau. of Nathaniel and Eunice (Kinsman) 
Burnam. After the death of her first hus- 
band, John Adams, her sister Eunice Day, 
and husband, John Day, were sureties on 
the bond. — Essex Prob. Files. 

Mrs. Priscilla and John Tredwell, m. int. 
Mar. 19, 1747. — Ipswich Rec. 

Priscilla Burnum and Arthur Abbot, m. 
May 23, 1734.— Ipswich Rec. 

Reubin Burnam of Bridgton and wid. 
Hannah Foster, m. Oct. 23, 1777. — Boxford 
Records. 

Robert Burnham'and Martha Burnham 
both of Chebacco m. in Ipswich June 11, 
1677. There is probably some mistake in 
the records here for under the same date 
we find the marriage of Robert Burnham 
and Martha Brown "at the Hamlet". — 
Ipswich Records. 

Rufus Burnham of Boxford (Ipswich 
Family No. 256) m. Sarah Chapman. He 
lived upon the "Wood Farm" in Boxford 
until about 1822 when he built the "Dol- 



loff" House about 1822, to which he re- 
moved. — Essex hist. Hist. Col. v. XX VII, 
p. 119. 

Ruhamah Burnham of Manchester, m. 
July 8, 1784, Jonathan Blasdel s. of Enoch 
Blasdel of Sedgwick in Blue Hill, Maine. 
Jonathan died before March 29, 1790. — 
Essex Antiquarian v. X, p. 108. 

Samuel Burnam of Reading and Bette 
Hay ward, m. pub. Andover Nov. 10, 1709. 
— Andover Records. 

Sarah Burnham d. numb palsy, June 9, 
1783, aged about 63 yrs. — Ipswich Records. 

Sarah Burnham, w. , d. 1822, aged 

73 y. — Boxford Records. 

Sarah Burnam and Nathaniel Conant, 
m. Beverly May 11,1789. — Beverly Records. 

— Burnham, w. of Seth, d. Essex Feb. 
13, 1826, aged 78 y. — Essex Records. 

Sarah Burnam and William Story m. 
Jan. 3, 1769. — Ipswich Records. She was 
probably No. 18S in the Ipswich Family. 
The youngest brother of No. 188, Jabez, 
was placed under the guardianship of Wil- 
liam Story, Oct. 27, 1772. (See No. 195 in 
Ipswich Family.) 

Sarah Burnham and Nathan Story m. 
April 23, 1772. — Ipswich Rec. 

Sarah Burnum and John Young of 
Kingston, N. H. m. [Nov. c. r.] 13, 1729. 
— Ipswich Rec. 

Susannah Burnham and Phinehas Has- 
kell] of Gloucester m. June 4, 1761. He 
was the son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth 
Haskell. — Ipswich Rec. and E. Inst. Hist. 
Col. v. XXXII p. 145. 

Mrs. Susanna Burnam and Daniel Hara- 
din of Gloucester m. int. Oct. 14, 1707. — 
Ipswich Rec. 

Thomas Burnum, Sen., of Ipswich, car- 
penter, conveyed to his beloved son Joseph 
Burnum of Ipswich, a three acre lot at 
Plum Island, Ipswich, March 14. 1724. 
Essex Deeds 44-251. This same Joseph, 
son of Lieut. Thomas Burnam, bought land 
of John Potter in Ipswich, June 10, 1714. 



FAMILY GENEALOGIES 



47 



Essex Deeds 37-113. The father Thomas 
was in all probability No. 10 in the Ips- 
wich Family and this son Joseph does not 
appear in the vital records of Ipswich. He 
may have been the "Joseph Burnam of 
Ipswich" who figured in a case recorded in 
the records of the Essex County Court at 
Ipswich Sept. 29, 1685, thus accounting 
for neglect to mention him in the family 
records. 

Deacon Thomas Burnam had children: 
Luther bap. May 10, 1772, d. Jan. 3, 1774, 
aged about 20 mos.; Elizabeth b. Mar. 1, 
1781, d. Jan. 14, 1787. Elizabeth was 
called the daughter of Deacon Thomas and 
Elizabeth. — Ipswich Records. 

Thomas Burnham 7th, and Mary Mar- 
shal m. in Ipswich Nov. 28, 1784. — Ips- 
wich Records. 

Thomas Burnham and w. Esther had a 
daughter Hannah b. in Ipswich Sept. 22, 
1707. — Ipswich Records. 

Thomas Burnam and Mary Lane m. int. 
recorded in Gloucester, May 26, 1752. — 
Gloucester Records. 

Thomas Burnarrrof Ipswich. A petition 
signed 'Jan. 4, 1785, by Mary Burnam, 
James Burnam and others, be appointed 
for Thomas Burnam of Ipswich, yeoman, 
"non compos mentis". The selectmen of 
Ipswich were requested on that date "to 
make inquisition as to the state of mind of 
the said Thomas." They reported on the 
following day that he was incapable of 
taking care of himself and appointed John 
Willet guardian. His property was valued 
at £906:12:07, January 19, 1785.— Essex 
Prob. Files No. 4182. Widow Mary 
Burnham recovered from John Willet of 
Ipswich, and others, J part of the real estate 
of her late husband Thomas Burnam, late 
of Ipswich, June 26, 1794.— Essex Deeds 
157-237. 

Thomas Burnham died in Essex Dec. 20, 
1834, ae. 74 years. An affidavit signed by 
Joshua Low and Moses Burnham, Jun., 



showed that "Thomas Burnham, late o* 
said Essex was a Revolutionary Pensioner 
of the United States, that he died on the 
eighteenth day of December, Eighteen 
Hundred and thirty-four, that he left a 
widow, Mary Burnham, who is now alive." 
Sworn to August 8, 1835. She may have 
been the Mrs. Mary Burnham who married 
Capt. Francis Burnham in Essex, May 28, 
1835. — Essex Records and Essex Prob. 
Files. No. 41S7. 

William Burnham of Ipswich graduated 
from Harvard College in 1702. He was a 
clergyman and settled at Kensington, 
Conn. Parentage unknown. 

William Burnham, fourth, m. Rachel 
Poland at Chebacco Aug. 23, 1789 — Ips- 
wich Records. 

William Burnham m. in Ipswich Oct. 6, 
1785, Lucy Choate, daughter of John 
Choate. They had one daughter Hannah 
Choate b. June 26, 1786. The mother d. 
July 2, 1789, in her 23rd year. (The 
gravestone in Essex reads July 2, 1787, ae. 
22 yrs.) — Ipswich Records. 

William Burnham, third, m. Mar. 24, 
1785, Rachel Andrews, dau. of Joseph and 
Rachel (Burnham) Andrews of Ipswich. 
She was b. Mar. 27, 1759. — Ipswich Rec- 
ords. 

Zaccheus Burnham who m. Andover, 
July 8, 1798, Dolly Foster of Reading, d. 
at Andover May 26, 1845, aged 70, grave 
record, 71 church record. — Andover Rec- 
ords. 

The above notes include all unplaced 
Burnams, Burnhams and Burnums which 
we have found with the exception of 
some of the men whose names appear in 
the "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of 
the Revolutionary War." Owing to the 
large number bearing the same Christian 
names and the indefiniteness of the inform- 
ation in the rolls and returns, many of 
these are unplaced. All identified ones are 
given in the text of the arranged families. 



dkrttm^ro tc (Jommntt 



on ^oo8^ anb (Piljet ^ubject^ 



The old building at 18 Somerset street, 
Boston, so long the headquarters of the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society- 
has become so over-loaded with books 
that the building inspector deemed it un- 
safe for meeting purposes, consequently 
recent meetings have been held in the 
basement hall of the Congregational house, 
at 14 Beacon street, and plans have been 
made to erect a new library building on 
Allston place. 

The work of tearing down the old build- 
ings on Allston place was begun in Janu- 
ary. The new building is to cost $150,000, 
will be constructed of brick, and made 
with a special view to safeguarding the 
priceless historical collections of the society 
from fire. The Society needs about 
$75,000 in funds to completely defray the 
cost of the new structure, and is soliciting 
funds from members of the Pioneer, Col- 
onial, and Revolutionary Societies, who 
use the society's records so extensively 
to prove their lines of descent. a. w. d. 



American historical students are inter- 
ested in the displacement of Gen. Ains- 
worth, Adjutant General of the United 
States Army and custodian of the govern- 
ment military archives. 

Without expressing any opinion as to 
the merits of his controversy with the Sec- 
retary of War and the Chief of Staff, in- 
vestigators seem to be unanimous in con- 
demnation of the illiberal spirit in which 
these manuscript treasures have been ad- 
ministered. A recent number of the "Na- 
tion", New York, contained a sort of sym- 
posium on the subject. 



There is some reason to hope that the 
next incumbent may be more willing to 
recognize the right of American scholars. 

C A. F. 



Miss Lucie Marion Gardner, one of our 
associate editors, has been appointed field 
secretary of teacher training in the Massa- 
chusetts Baptist Sunday School Associa- 
tion. Miss Gardner is a native of Salem 
and daughter of Deacon Stephen and Mar- 
ion Wallace (Woods) Gardner. For sev- 
eral years she has been district superin- 
tendent of the home department of the 
Massachusetts Sunday School Association. 



The Siege of Boston by Allen French. 
"A brief and readable account of the Siege 
of Boston, and of the events which brought 
it about." 450 pages. 16 mo. SI. 50 net. 
The Macmillan Company, New York. 

The portrayal of notable historical 
events in a form which appeals to the gen- 
eral reader is altogether commendable. 
Mr. French in this book has succeeded in 
giving an interesting and accurate account 
of one of the most important operations of 
the American Revolution. 

His review of the causes which led up 
to the war for independence is excellent 
and he places its "ultimate origin in the 
fact that the very charter under which the 
colony was planted differed from all doc- 
uments granted by any English king. 
This difference lay in the omission of the 
condition, usual in such charters, that its 
governing board should meet in London 
practically for the purpose of supervision 
of the king. That the omission of this 
condition was the result of wisdom on the 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



49 



part of the founders, and stupidity on the 
part of the officers of the king, seems un- 
deniable. The founders, unhappy and 
alarmed at the political and religious 
iituation in England under Charles the 
First, were seeking to provide for -them- 
selves and their families a refuge from his 
oppressions. Secure in their charter, they 
presently left England for good. When 
they sailed for America they did all that 
could be done to cut themselves off from 
interference by the crown. At intervals, 
extremely valuable for the future of Amer- 
ica, the Massachusetts colony certainly 
was free from all restraint. . . . Distance 
and home difficulties — for the Stuart kings 
usually had their hands full of trouble 
with their subjects — favored the non- 
interference which the Colonists craved. 
When, however, the Stuarts had any leis- 
ure at all, they at once devoted it to quar- 
relling with their subjects in New England. 
Even to the easy- going Charles II the 
cool aloofness of the colonists was a bit 
too strong; to his father and brother it 
was intolerable." 

The author calls attention to the fact 
that in the matter of the tea-tax "they 
balked, not at the amount of the tax, but 
at its principle." 

The account of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill is clearly and intelligently given and 
closes with the following excellent com- 
ment on the old controversy regarding 
commanders: "The student of this day 
finds it difficult to disentangle the varied 
accounts. Who was on the field and who 
was not, what part was taken by each, who 
was in command at this point and who was 
there, and the total of men engaged, all 
either were or still are disputed points. It 
seems to be beyond doubt, however, that 
Prescott from the first was in command at 
the redoubt, and that Putnam assumed, 
and tried to execute, general oversight of 
the field of contest outside the redoubt and 



beyond the breastwork." Regarding the 
effect of the battle upon the British he 
writes that Howe "never forgot the lesson 
of the redoubt on Breed's Hill, or of the 
flimsy fence of rails and hay. It was sel- 
dom that he could resolve to send his men 
against a rebel entrenchment." 

A very interesting feature of the book is 
the large number of quotations from dia- 
ries and letters giving the experiences of 
Patriots and Tories who were obliged to 
live within the confines of the beleagured 
city. One Tory mentioned the "dreadful 
cannonading" of the skirmish of the night 
of July 30, and another, Samuel Paine, 
wrote "These are Governor Hutchinson's 
countrymen that would not fight, are 
they?" When they found as the author 
says, that they would fight "and like the 
devil", they began to organize Tory military 
companies. The experiences of the Whigs 
or Patriots were vastly harder and it was 
with great difficulty that they could obtain 
food. One wrote, "pork and beans one 
day, and beans and pork another, and risk. 
when we can catch it." They were thrown 
into prison upon any trumped up charge 
and obliged to endure a "Complicated scene 
of Oaths, Curses, Debauchery, and the 
most horrid Blasphemy, committed by the 
Provost Marshal, his Deputy and Soldiers, 
who were on Guard, Soldiers, prisoners, 
and sundry soldier women." 

The appearance and make-up of the pa- 
triot army which invested Boston, and the 
difficulties which beset General Washington 
in bringing about order and military disci- 
pline are well described. 

The story of the hurried fortifying of 
Dorchester Heights and the speedy evacu- 
ation of the city by the British is well told. 
The author closes as follows: "No attempt 
was made to retake the town, for there 
could be no profit in gaining what could 
not be held. In the remaining years of the 
war the town had no more serious duty 
than fitting out ships of war and privateers, 
and entertaining the officers of the 
French fleet. But Boston had earned its 
rest. For nearly sixteen years the town 
had stood as the spokesman for liberty, 
the leader of revolt. In bringing the 
country safely through a critical period, 
the services of Boston were essential." 

F. A. G. 



mby ". 



Editor tat H^atjtjsT 

Rev. Thomas Ilraj^klin Waters. 



THE endowment funds, contributed 
by wise and far-seeing friends of 
learning, have long been a valuable 
asset of our colleges and higher institu- 
tions. Professorships, scholarships for 
needy and deserving students, and com- 
petitive prizes for distinguished excellence 
in particular studies, have thus been main- 
tained. The advantages of the higher ed- 
ucation have been secured to multitudes, 
and not a few have attained brilliant re- 
nown through the inspirations and encour- 
agements of their student life. 

THE latest development of this en- 
dowment scheme has been the crea- 
tion of the Carnegie Pension Fund 
for professors in approved colleges and 
universities and the Fund for scientific 
research. Both promise rich returns in 
the choice fruit of the finest scholarship. 
The former secures to teachers, while still 
in their prime, release from the daily round 
of the class-room and labaratory, and op- 
portunity for continuous devotion to the 
special studies in which they already 
excel. The latter provides the finest appa- 
ratus that modern science has devised, and 
summons men of acutest intellect, in the 
fresh enthusiasm of early life, to devote 
their lives to the prosecution of research 
in those mysterious but fascinating realms, 
where the secrets of life abide. 

BUT there are fields of research, for 
the exploration of which no endow- 
ment has yet provided, save as the 
professor, retired on his pension, may 
choose to enter. Of these, History may 
be the most conspicuous. Research in the 



realms of Science is stimulated by the 
prospect of financial return as well as the 
reward of popular applause. The explo- 
ration of the remote and dreary regions, 
which remain to be visited and mapped, 
always makes effective appeal to wealthy 
and generous supporters. But the lover 
of History, who delights in the patient 
study of tedious annals, who finds invit- 
ing realms waiting to be entered, who 
gathers up the experiences of human kind 
in the social, political and economical 
problems, which still confront us, who 
completes at last some charming picture 
of the Past, or some fascinating and truth- 
ful record of things forgotten, cannot be 
sure even of finding a publisher, and, is 
well aware that any fair return for time 
and toil is impossible. 

SO it comes to pass, naturally and 
inevitably, that the profession of the 
historian necessitates the preliminary 
good fortune of wealth and leisure, except 
he has already won recognition as a teacher 
or expert authority. Mr. Motley made his 
study of original documents from perfect 
copies made by his subordinates. Many 
living authors and students of history are 
spending their elegant leisure in these 
pursuits. 

MANY more are working for their 
daily bread at some task, for which 
they have little love and stealing 
some golden hours for the historical pur- 
suits which charm them. They have the 
spirit of the true explorer. They are not 
content until they reach the fountain head, 
the original document, the official report, 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



51 



the contemporary report. They have large 
endowment of perseverance, of historic 
insight, of skill in the interpretation of con- 
fused data, but they are forever debarred 
by their lack of financial resource from 
completing more than a fraction of what 
they could and what they ought. The 
work they do accomplish is worth while, 
but the work they might accomplish 
would be of great value. Not a few, we 
may believe, are held back from large 
constructive work in broad and difficult 
realms. Others are toiling* in narrower 
fields. All are worthy of the privilege of 
doing their best in their chosen sphere. 
Their lives would count for much more 
of public and permanent value to their 
own community or the larger brotherhood 
of men of similar tastes, by indulging their 
passion, than they can ever hope to at- 
tain in their forced employment. 

AN endowment of some kind, or only 
the payment of an assured stipend 
to individuals especially expert and 
well furnished, during their lives, would be 
a wise investment. Pending the discovery 
of some wealthy patron, who may find 
here an opportunity of enduring usefulness, 
which appeals to him, and creates a foun- 
dation for Historical Research, a begin- 
ning may easily be made in every com- 
munity. In almost every place, one per- 
son at least is a recognized authority in 
all matters of local history. He is an en- 
thusiastic investigator. His long labors 
have been labors of love. His accumula- 
tions of historical material are invaluable. 
But he has no means of publishing and 
therefore lacks the incentive to preparing 
a history or historical monographs. The 
fruits of his toil will die with him. 

IT would be a small matter for an indi- 
vidual of large wealth, or a little circle 
of generous friends to provide an annual 
salary to encourage his systematic pursuit 



of investigation, as the business of life, 
and provide for the preservation of its re- 
sults in permanent form. Local histor- 
ical societies could do no better than cre- 
ate the office of historian and provide an 
income large enough to support their offi- 
cial, wholly or in part. Few real ; ze how 
great a burden of gratuitous toil is already 
imposed on every local historian. The 
rage for genealogical research has become 
a consuming passion. From our old Xew 
England towns, descendants of the early 
families have gone out into all the ends of 
the earth. Natural curiosity to know 
their ancestry prompts many of them to 
write to the old home town for informa- 
tion. 'Desire for membership in the vari- 
ous organizations of Daughters and Sons 
of the Revolution, and family clans, puts 
many on the search for their ancestral 
record. 

EVERY week brings beseeching letters 
from every section of our country, 
that come at last to the table of the 
local historian. Some of them, because 
the writers are wholly unsophisticated in 
the art of genealogical research, with 
childlike innocence, propose queries which 
would involve years of labor, it may be, to 
answer only imperfectly. Others, coming 
from experienced searchers perplexed by 
some insoluble problem, which has long de- 
fied them, beg his kind offices in proposing 
a solution. Rarely is there a promise of 
financial remuneration, though large instal- 
ments of gratitude in advance are gener- 
ously assured. Sometimes not even a post- 
age stamp accompanies. More than that, 
the promise to pay for work has failed to 
materialize so often that Town Clerks have 
long since learned by bitter experience of 
the financial untrustworthiness of the seek- 
ers for knowledge, and, hardening their 
hearts, they cast the incoming epistles into 
the fire. 



OUR EDITORIAL PAGES 



52 



SO the flames are being fed in many 
quiet work-rooms, where the student 
of history is busy at his task, not be- 
cause he is a churl or a sordid catch-penny, 
but because he has grown desperate under 
these demands for gratuitous toil. Many 
kindly and well meaning people are there- 
fore disappointed and the whole great work 
of genealogical inquiry embarassed because 
of this never ending presuming upon the 
good nature of some unknown person, who 
is able, it seems to be thought, to answer 
any and every question oft hand and who 
finds his chief delight in writing long let- 
ters to unknown correspondents. 

THE whole business of historical re- 
search and the work of many kinds 
incident thereto needs to be raised 
in the popular estimation to the level of 



the skilled professions. The wisdom of the 
antiquary or the historian should have :i 
market price as well as the wisdom of the 
legal adviser or searcher of titles. Appli- 
cations for information should bring a 
gratuity at least, as the pledge of fair dial- 
ing. Such recognition is already given to 
professional genealogists, who exact a 
definite fee. 

SUCH emoluments, however, are of 
very uncertain value. They would 
relieve in a measure but they do not 
settle the financial problem. The larger 
task remains to make it possible for the 
earnest student of recognized ability to 
give all his time and strength, without 
taking anxious thought for tomorrow, to 
the various tasks that every day brings. 



THE 



MASSACHVSETTS 
MAGAZINE 




Published by the Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass.US.A. 



\i 



rl 






\2 




<P 




11 -^V 4 



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I&Mtete& Mmistk 



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%l\t IHa&sadjuscffs JHaijaunc. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, epswxch, mass. 

ASSOCIATE AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 

George Sheldon, Dr. Frank A. Gardner, Lucie M. Gardner 

DEKBF1KLD, MASS. SALEM, MASS. SALE*, Ma>s. 

Charles A. Flagq, John X. McClintock, Albert W. Dennis, 

WASH1SOTON, D. C. DOBCHESTKU, MASS. SALEM, m„. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 
VOL. V APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER, igia NO. 2, 3, 4. 



Conttnfs of *Ijt0 %BB\it. 



Colonel Wm. Heath's and Colonel John Greaton's Regiments 

F. A. Gardner, M.D. . 55 

Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. . F. A. Gardner, M.D. . 71 

The Winslow House . Francis R. Stoddard, Jr. . 102 

Department of the American Revolution F. A. Gardner, M.D. . 105 

Criticism and Comment 112 

Massachusetts Pioneers . . Charles A. Flagg . 115 



CORRESPONDENCE of a business nature should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. 

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ON SALE. Copies of this magazine are on sale in Boston, at W. B. Clark's & Co., 25 Tremont Street, Old 
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Entered as second-class matter March J3, 1008, at the post office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congress 
of March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 




[Tbis is the second half of the thirteenth of a series of articles, giving the organization :uid history 
of all the Massachusetts regiments which took part in the war of the Revolution.] 

COLONEL WILLIAM HEATH'S 

AND 

COLONEL JOHN GREATON'S 
REGIMENTS 

Colonel William Heath's Regiment, April 19, 1775. 

Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, April 19, 1775. 

Colonel William Heath's 21st Regiment, Provincial army, April-July, 1775. 

Colonel Johj* Greaton's 36th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, July-Dkcembee, 1775. 

( Concluded) 
MAJOR JOTHAM LORING, of Hingham, was the son of Thomas and Sarah 
(Hersey) Loring. He was born in Hingham. April 30, 1740- From August 15 to- 
18, 1758, he served as a private in Captain Ebenezer Beal's Company, marching, 
to relieve Fort William Henry. In July, 1771, he was Second Lieutenant in Captain- 
Francis Parker Jr.'s Train of Artillery in Colonel John Thaxter's Regiment. His 
trade was that of a hatte'r and in 1773 he was made constable. He commanded a 
company of artillery from Hingham on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, and 
April 27th was engaged as a Captain in Colonel Heath's Regiment. Later (probably 
in May, 1775) he became Second Major in the regiment and served through the 
year. During 1776, he was Major in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Conti- 
nental Army. January 1, 1777, he became Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel John 
Greaton's 3d Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and served until August 12, 1779, when 
he was tried by court martial and dismissed. He removed to Duxbury and died 
September 28, 1820- 

ADJUTANT MOSES BARKER was probably the man of that name who 
enlisted as a private in Captain Bod well's Company, Colonel Saltonstall's Regiment, 
April 22, 1756, and as a resident of Methuen served in Captain Daniel Bodwell's 



56 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Company, Lieut. Colonel John Osgood's Regiment, April 19, 1757. From May 17 
to December 8, 1760, he was a private in Captain William Barron's Company. At 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he served as Adjutant of Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment, and from March 4 to 8, 1776, held the same office in Colonel 
William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment at the taking of Dorchester 
Heights. 

ADJUTANT WILLIAM DAWES JUNIOR was the son of Thomas Dawes, a 
wealthy builder of Boston, and brother of Lieut. Colonel Thomas Dawes, of Colonel 
Henry Bromfield's Boston Regiment. He was one of the men chosen to ride with 
Paul Revere and was "to make the ride through Roxbury." His name appears as 
Adjutant of General William Heath's Regiment in a return dated May 20, 1775. 
September 7, 1776, he was commissioned Second Major of Colonel Henry Brom- 
field's Boston Regiment. He was reported "resigned." It is stated in a "Dawes" 
pamphlet in the Essex Institute Library that he was grandfather of Brevet Brigadier 
General Rufus B. Dawes, of the Civil War and of Lieut. Colonel Dawes of the 
53d Ohio Regiment in the same war. The Civil war officers referred to were Lieut- 
Colonel Rufus R. Dawes, of the 6th Wisconsin Regiment, who was brevetted Briga- 
dier General and Major Ephraim C. Dawes, of the 53d Ohio Regiment. Their 
records may be found in the "Official Army Register, Volunteer Force, 1861-1S65." 

ADJUTANT NATHAN RICE, son of Rev. Caleb and Priscilla (Payson) Rice 
was born in Sturbridge, August 2, 1753. He graduated from Harvard College in 
1773 and was a law student in John Adams's office at the time of the breaking out 
of the Revolution. He served for a time as Adjutant of Colonel Heath's Regiment 
in 1775 and through 1776 was Second Lieutenant and Adjutant of Colonel John 
Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. From May 7, 1777, to December 31, 
1779, he was Aide-de-Camp to General Lincoln and in the following year with the 
rank of Major he served as Aide-de-Camp and Brigade Inspector. January 1, 

1781, he became Major of Colonel William Shepard's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line, and served until June, 1783, holding the rank of Major Commandant in April 

1782, and May, 1783. He engaged in mercantile business from 1783 until 1798. 
At the time of the war scare with France in 1799 he became Lieut. Colonel of the 
14th Regiment, U. S. Infantry, and was stationed at Oxford, Massachusetts. He 
received an honorable discharge, June 15, 1800. He represented Hingham in the 
Legislature from 1801 to 1805. In 1811 he removed to Burlington, Vermont. His 
death occurred April 17, 1834- He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of 
the Cincinnati and his memorialist in the records of the society wrote of him as 
follows: "Colonel Rice was prompt in the discharge of his official duties, gentle- 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENT 57 

manly in his deportment and highly esteemed for his noble bearing and social 
qualities." 

SURGEON'S MATE JOHN GEORGES held that rank in this regiment as 
shown by a list dated Watertown, July 5, 1775. No further record of him appears 
in the Massachusetts Archives but Heitman in "The Historical Register of the 
Officers of the Continental Army," states that he held that rank in this regiment from 
June 28 to December, 1775. 

QUARTERMASTER WILLIAM VOSE, often called "BILL," was the son of 
Elijah and Sarah (Bent) Vose, and brother of General Joseph and Colonel Elijah. 
He was born in Milton, January 20, 1752. He served as corporal in Captain Eben- 
ezer Tucker's Company of Militia on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, and 
his name appears as Quartermaster of Major General Heath's Regiment in a list 
dated June 23, 1775. January 1, 1777, he became Paymaster of Colonel Joseph 
Vose's 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and served at least as late as August, 1779. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BENT, of Milton, was the son of Joseph and Martha 
(Houghton) Bent, and was born in Milton, November 13, 1737. He served as a 
"sentinel" in Captain Nathaniel Perry's Company, Colonel Winslow's Regiment, 
from June 29 to September 29, 1754- May 2, 1758, he enlisted in Captain Richard 
Atkins's Company. From September to November, 1758, he was in Captain Parker's 
Company in Colonel Williams's Regiment. He was a sergeant in Captain Mose3 
Curtis's Company, Colonel Frye's Regiment, at St. John from April 2, 1759, to 
July 22, 1760. In the following year he was Ensign in Colonel Nathaniel Thwing's 
Regiment and from March 4, 1762, to November 10, of that year, was Lieutenant, 
according to a payroll signed by Lieut. Colonel Jotham Gay. He marched as a 
private with Captain Asahel Smith's Company, Colonel Lemuel Robinson's Regi- 
ment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He came back and organized a 
company April 27, 1775, and joined Colonel Heath's Regiment, serving through 
the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, 
Continental Army. When not in actual service during the war he purchased and 
delivered supplies to the families of soldiers. The author of "The Bent Family" 
states that "for many years he kept the 'Eagle Tavern,' a famous resort for old-time 
gentlemen and Federalists-" He attended to the painting of the meeting house and 
took charge of the boys in the gallery. He died at Canton, October 17, 1806. 

CAPTAIN JOHN BOYD, of Wrentham, was a private in Captain Samuel 
Glover's Company, Colonel J. Williams's Regiment, at Lake George, in 1758. From 
April 2, 1759, to April 22, 1760, he was a Corporal in Captain Simon Slocum's 
Company, of Wrentham, at Fort Cumberland, and from the last named date until 



m;; 



53 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

October 31, 1760, a Sergeant in Lieutenant Benjamin Holder's Company at the same 
fort On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, he served as Captain of a company 
of Minute Men in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, and April 25, 1775, was 
engaged as Captain of a company in Colonel Heath's Regiment. August 24, 1778 r 
he enlisted in Colonel John Daggett's Regiment for special service in Rhode Island, 
and served until September 3d. He was commissioned June 16, 1779, Captain of 
the 9th (North Franklin) Company in Colonel Benjamin Hawes's 4th Suffolk 
County Regiment. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BULLARD, of Dedham, was a private in Captain 
Nathan Sumner's Company in January, 1759- April 16, 1766, he was commissioned 
Ensign in Second Major Eliphalet Fales's Dedham 2nd Precinct Company in 
Colonel Jeremy Gridley's Regiment. In September, 1771, he was a Lieutenant in 
Captain Aaron Guild's 2nd Dedham Company, in Colonel Eliphalet Pond's 1st 
Suffolk County Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he com- 
manded a Dedham (South Precinct) Company in Colonel William Heath's Regi- 
ment. March 4, 1776, he responded with his Dedham Company to an alarm and 
served four days in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. 

CAPTAIN LEMUEL CHILD, of Roxbury, was commissioned November 10„ 
1773, Second Lieutenant in Captain Eliphalet Pond Junior's Train of Artillery in 
Colonel Eliphalet Pond's Regiment. He marched April 19, 1775, on the Lexington 
alarm, as Captain of the 3d Roxbury Company in Colonel William Heath's Regiment 
and served fifteen days. In later years he kept the "Peacock Tavern" in Roxbury^ 
at what is now the western corner of Centre and Allandale streets. 

CAPTAIN CHARLES GUSHING, of Hingham, son of Jacob and Mary 
(Chauncey) Cushing, was born in Hingham July 13, 1744. In response to the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Lieutenant in Captain Isaiab 
Cushing's Company, Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's Regiment, and served three days* 
April 27th he was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain Jotham Loring's Company,. 
Colonel John Greaton's Regiment. He was appointed Captain in the same regiment,. 
June 22nd, and served through the year- When Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regi- 
ment, Continental Army, was formed January 1, 1776, he became a Captain in 
that organization. The statement is made in the "History of Hingham" that he 
was known as "Colonel." There is no evidence from the records that he held such 
a rank during the Revolution. He was Selectman of Hingham in 177S-9; Represen- 
tative in 1780, 1, 4, 9, 1790, 1, 2, 3, and Senator in 1794. He was a farmer and 
magistrate and resided at Hingham Centre, removing later in life to Lunenburg^ 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENT 59 

CAPTAIN JOB CUSHING, of Cohasset, was engaged May 16, 1775, to 
command a company in Colonel William Heath's Regiment and he continued to 
serve in this organization through the year. December IS, 1776, he was engaged 
as Captain in Colonel Solomon Lovell's 2nd Suffolk County Regiment and he served 
until his discharge, March 17, 1777. He was commissioned March 10, 1779, Cap- 
tain of the 4th Cohasset Company in Colonel David Cushing's 2nd Suffolk County 
Regiment. From May 5 to July 1, 1779, he served as Captain in Lieut. Colonel 
Samuel Pierce's 3d Suffolk County Regiment at Rhode Island. September 30, 1782, 
«he was engaged to serve as Major at Nantasket and was discharged October 24, 1782. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM DRAPER, of Roxbury (also given Milton) at the age 
of 22, occupation laborer; served in May, 1756, in Captain William Bacon's Com- 
pany, Colonel Richard Gridley's Regiment, in an expedition against Crown Point. 
October 11th his name appears as Sergeant in the same company. In the following 
year he served in Captain Jeremiah Richards's Company, Colonel Francis Bindley's 
Regiment. September 19, 1771, he was commissioned Lieutenant in Captain Eben- 
ezer Whiting's 2nd Roxbury Company in Colonel Eliphalet Pond's 1st Suffolk 
■County Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, as Captain he 
commanded the 2nd Roxbury Company in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, 
serving until May 3d, 1775. He was a Captain in Colonel Ephraim Whcelock's 
4th Suffolk County Regiment August 24, 1776. He was reported sick at Fort 
■George, from October 24, 1776, and given leave of absence until recovery. He died 
November 17, 1776. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM ELLIS, of Dedham, first saw service in April, 1759, as 
a private in Lieut. Colonel Joseph Richards's Regiment. From April 23 to October 
31, 1760, he was a private in Lieutenant Benjamin Holden's Company at Fort Cum- 
berland. He served as Sergeant in Captain Moses Hart's Company. He was 
Captain of a Company in Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington 
■alarm, April 19, 1775. He was probably the man of that name who was Lieutenant 
in Captain David Fairbanks's Company, Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk 
County Regiment, March 4, 1776, at Dorchester Heights. 

CAPTAIN DAVID FAIRBANKS, of Dedham, had a long service in the French 
'war, serving first as private in Captain Eliphalet Fales's Company from May 19 to 
December 15 (probably 1755). In the following year at the age of 17, occupation 
- — laborer, he served in Captain William Bacon's Company, Colonel Richard Grid- 
ley's Regiment, from April 22 to December 5. Two years later he was in Major 
Eliphalet Pond's Company, Colonel Francis Brindley's Regiment. He served as 
lieutenant in Captain Isaac Colbern's (Dedham 3d Precinct) Company, Colonel 



60 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Eliphalet Pond's 1st Suffolk County Regiment, September, 1771. On the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775, he was Captain of a company in Colonel William Heath's 
Regiment. From March 4 to 8, 1776, he was Captain of a company in Colonel 
William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment at Dorchester Heights. Reported 
deceased. 

CAPTAIN JACOB GOULD, of Weymouth, was born about 1740. He was the 
son of John Gould. As a resident of Walpole, he served as a private in Captain 
Eliphalet Fales's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Nichols's Regiment, from April 8 to 
November 1, 1758. He enlisted again in 1759, from Walpole, and from June 13 
to January 6, 1761-2, served in Captain Timothy Hamant's Company. He was 
Captain of a Company of Minute Men in Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's Regiment, on 
the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. Eight days later he was engaged to serve 
in the same rank in Colonel Heath's Regiment, and he continued to serve in this 
regiment through the year. In 1776 he was Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 
24th Regiment, Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH GUILD, of Dedham, son of Joseph and Hannah (Curtis) 
Guild, was born in Dedham, May 11, 1735- He may possibly have been the "J ose ph- 
Guild" who was Sergeant of Captain John "Starmes" Attleborough Company, in 
October, 1754. He was Captain of a Company of Minute Men in Colonel John 
Greaton's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24th he was 
engaged to serve under the same commander in the Provincial Army and he con- 
tinued under him through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel John 
Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. He was a member of the Committee 
of Safety, and in 1780-1, served as a member of the Committee of Correspondence, 
Inspection and Safety. He was Parish Treasurer for eight years and also served 
as Justice of the Peace, Selectman and Representative. He died December 28, 1794. 
The author of the Guild Genealogy states that "He was esteemed as an honorable,. 
upright and virtuous man, and an energetic, useful citizen." Interesting extracts- 
from his "Journal" have been published in the Dedham Historical Register, v- VII, 
pp. 43-7; and his mother's ancestry is given in the same periodical, v. VI, pp. 70-2. 

CAPTAIN SABIN MANN, of Medfield, son of Richard and Sarah (Sabin) 
Mann, was born in Medfield in 1747. He was Captain of a Company in Colonel 
John Greaton's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. He served as 
Adjutant of Colonel Lemuel Robinson's Three Months Regiment, January-April, 
1776. April 23, 1776, his commission as Captain in Colonel Ephraim Wheelock's 
4th Suffolk County Regiment was ordered and in December, 1776, he was Captain 
in Major James Metcalf's Regiment at Warwick, R. I. He also was Captain of a. 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS I 1 

Company serving at or near Bristol, R. I., for one month, July, 1777. July 27, 17S0, 
he marched as Second Major of the 4th Suffolk County Regiment, commanded by 
Major Seth Bullard, the occasion being a Rhode Island alarm. He kept a tavern i:i 
Medfield, and died in that town in 1800. He made a request that he be buried in 
the lot back of his house as he said, to watch Charles Hamant when he took toll at 
his grist-mill, near by. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL PAYSON, of Stoughtonham, was a carpenter by occupa- 
tion. He was born about 1735. From September 15 to December 14, 1755, he was 
in Captain Joseph Bent's Company. In 1756, from March 29 to October 17, he was 
in Captain Stephen Miller's Company, Colonel Bagley's Regiment, on an expedition 
to Crown Point. October 12, 1756, he was reported "sick" at Albany. In the fol- 
lowing year he was in Captain Benjamin Johnson's Company, Colonel Miller's" 
Regiment. From April 4 to June 24, 1758, he was in Captain Samuel Billings's 
Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, and in 1762 from March 22 to 
November 16 he was a member of Captain Timothy Hamant's Company. On the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain in Colonel John Great- 
on's Regiment. May 18, he became Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's 6th Regiment 
Provincial Army, and after the reorganization of the army in July, continued to 
serve under the same commander in the 20th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies. 
Through 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental 
Army. He died June 19, 1819. 

. . CAPTAIN AARON SMITH, of Needham, son of Jonathan Smith, was born 
in Needham, March 28, 1730. He was Captain of a Company in Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. In March, 1776, he 
commanded a Company of Needham men in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk 
County Regiment, during four days service at Dorchester Heights. His commission 
was ordered for service in this regiment, May 10, 1776. August 15, 1777, he was 
engaged to serve as Captain in Colonel Benjamin Gill's 3d Suffolk County Regiment 
in the Northern Department. He was Selectman in 1783 and 1789 and was Assessor 
for several years. He died in Needham, December 4, 1795. 

CAPTAIN ROBERT SMITH, of Needham, commanded a Company in 
Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, and 
served fourteen days. He commanded a Needham Company four days in March, 
1776, at the taking of Dorchester Heights. From February 19 to May 19, 177S, 
he served as Captain in Lieut. Colonel Andrew Symmes's detachment of guards 
(probably a portion of Colonel Jabez Hatch's Boston Regiment) under Major Gen- 
eral Heath. 



C2 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN ELIJAH YOSE, of Milton, was the son of Elijah and Sarah (Bent) 
Vose. He was born in Milton, February 24, 1744. In June, 1771, he was Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Robinson's Train of Artillery in Colonel Nathaniel 
Hatch's 3d Suffolk County Regiment. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Daniel 
Vose's Company of Artillery from Milton which marched in Colonel Lemuel 
Robinson's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. As early as May 
20, 1775, he was Captain in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, and served later 
under Colonel John Greaton in this organization through the year. During 1776, 
he was Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. 
January 1, 1777, he was made Major in Colonel Joseph Vose's (his brother's) 1st 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line. January 21, 1777, he was promoted to the rank of 
Lieut. Colonel. He served with this organization at West Point and other points 
up the Hudson and in the summer of 1783 was at Philadelphia. September 30, 
1783, he was brevetted Colonel. He served to November, 1783. In the "History of 
Mihon" it is stated that: "At the close of this service he returned to his native town 
(Milton) and devoted his labors exclusively to husbandry, which was his favorite 
pursuit to the last." He died in Milton, March 21, 1822. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS WHITE, of Brookline, was a private in Captain .Andrew 
Dalrymple's Company, Colonel Jedediah Preble's Regiment, from April 3, to Novem- 
ber 8, 1758. In July, 1771, he was Ensign in Captain Nathaniel Wales's 1st Brain- 
tree Company, Colonel John Thaxter's 2nd Suffolk County Regiment. He was 
Captain of a Company in Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington 
a 1 arm of April 19, 1775. From March 4 to May 1, 1776, he was Captain in Colonel 
Joseph Palmer's 5th Suffolk County Regiment, and ten days later was commissioned 
Captain of the 3d Company in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County 
Regiment. From December 10, 1777, to March 1, 1778, he was Captain in Colonel 
Edward Proctor's detachment of Guards at Dorchester. 

CAPTAIN MOSES WHITING as a resident of Roxbury, was a private in 
Captain Timothy Hamant's Company from April 30, 1761, to January 5, 1762. His 
father or master was Ebenezer Whiting, according to the records in the Massachu- 
setts Archives. He served as Captain in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26th he was engaged as Captain in this 
regiment and served through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel 
John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. April 20, 1779, he was commis- 
sioned Captain of the 5th Company in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk 
County Regiment. 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 63 

CAPTAIN SILAS WILD, of Braintree, was Surveyor of Highways in that 
town in 1759, 1766, 1769 and 1772, and Fence Viewer in 1771. He was Captain 
of a Braintree Company of Minute Men in Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's Regiment, 
on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 20, 1775, he was Captain in 
Colonel William Heath's Regiment, stationed at Dorchester Camp. He was Captain 
in Colonel John Greaton's 36th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, at Fort 
Number 2, October 6, 1775- January 1, 1776, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel 
Edmund Phinney's 18th Regiment, Continental Army. July 17, 1777, lie was 
commissioned Captain of the 5th Company in Colonel Ebenezer Thayer's 5th Suffolk 
County Regiment. From November 4, 1777, to April 3, 1778, he served as Captain 
2n Colonel Eleazer Brooks's Regiment of Guards at Cambridge, guarding troops 
of the Convention. He was a member of the Committee of Safety in 1783. He was 
Overseer of the Poor in 1787 and served on the School Committee in Braintree in 
1790. 

CAPTAIN EDWARD PAYSON WILLIAMS, of Roxbury, was the son of 
Jeremiah and Catherine (Payson) Williams and was born in Roxbury, February 26, 
1745-6. He was a Captain in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, May 20, 1775, at 
the Roxbury camp. He served through the year under Colonels Heath and Greaton 
and in 1776, was Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental 
Army. From January 1, 1777, until his death, May 25, 1777, he was Major in 
Colonel John Greaton's 3d Regiment, Massachusetts Line. Half pay was allowed 
his widow to May 25, 1784. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT MOSES BULLARD, of Needham, was Lieutenant 
in Captain Aaron Smith's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, April 19, 
1775- May 10, 1776, he was commissioned Lieutenant in Captain Smith's (West 
Needham) Company, Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment, 
having served with that organization in the previous March at Dorchester Heights. 
He was First Lieutenant of a Company of Needham and Dedham men, raised about 
July 30, 1776, to serve in Colonel Ephraim Wheelock's 4th Suffolk County Regiment 
in New York and Canada. He was at Ticonderoga October 1 1 of that year. From 
August 15 to November 29, 1777, he was in Captain Smith's Company, Colonel 
Benjamin Gill's 3d Suffolk County Regiment in the Northern Army. July 20, 1778, 
he was commissioned Captain in Colonel John Jacobs's Light Infantry Regiment 
and he served with that organization in Rhode Island until October 13, 1778. June 
27, 1780, he was engaged to serve as Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Thayer's 5th 
Suffolk County Regiment, receiving his commission September 22, and serving until 
October 30, 1780. 



64 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSHUA CLAPP, of Walpole, son of Joel and Eliza- 
beth (Burk) Clapp, was born with his twin brother Caleb, February 9, 1752. He 
was First Lieutenant of Captain Sabin Mann's Minute Men's Company in Colonel 
John Greaton's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving twelve 
days. In December, 1778, he was Captain of the Walpole North Company in 
Colonel Ephraim Wheelock's 4th Suffolk County Regiment, commanded by Major 
James Metcalf, in service in Rhode Island. The Clapp Memorial states that like 
his brother Caleb, he was subject to fits of depression and committed suicide, being 
a member of the State Legislature at the time. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONATHAN COLBORNE, of Dedham, is given 
credit for that rank in Captain William Ellis's Company, Colonel William Heath's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775, according to a roll in the Massachusetts Archives. The 
similarity of this name to the next officer's name leads one to think that some mistake 
was made in the original record. No account of further service has been found. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONATHAN COLBURN, of Dedham, was probably 
the Jonathan, son of Joseph and Mehitable (Whiting) Colburn, who was born 
October 24, 1735. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Fairbanks's Com- 
pany in Colonel William Heath's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775- 
He served as Lieutenant of a Company commanded by (late) Captain David Fair- 
banks, in Colonel William Mcintosh, at Dorchester Heights, March 4, 1776. May 
10, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in the last named regiment, but June 21st 
following, Joseph Ellis was chosen in his place. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT CALEB CRAFT, of Brookline, son of Ebenezer and 
Susannah (W 7 hite) Craft, was born in Roxbury, August 21, 1741. He was First 
Lieutenant in Captain Thomas White's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regi- 
ment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He served to May 12, 1775. May 
10, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Thomas White's Com- 
pany, Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment- He was Lieuten- 
ant in command of a detachment of Colonel William Mcintosh's Regiment which 
served with guards at Dorchester Heights from July 4 to July 28, 1778. The author 
of "The Crafts Family" states that: "He resided in Brookline and was one of the 
most prominent and influential men in the town, holding many public offices, and 
enjoying to a marked degree the respect and confidence of his townsmen." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JACOB DAVIS, of Roxbury, held that rank in Cap- 
tain Moses Whiting's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. Service, 28 days. 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 65 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EBENEZER DEAN, of Wrcntham, served in that 
rank in Captain John Boyd's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, April 
19, 1775. He continued in this organization through the year. As First Lieutenant 
in Captain Aaron Guild's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's Regiment, he was 
granted beating orders by the Provincial Congress April 11, 1776, to enlist men for 
services in the defences about Boston. He served until November 30, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ASA DYER, of Weymouth, son of Joseph and Jane 
(Stevens) Dyer, was born in Weymouth July 26, 1759. He was a private in Captain 
Edward Ward's Company, May 23, 1758, on an expedition to Lake George- April 
2, 1759, he enlisted in Captain Jotham Gay's Company, Colonel Thomas's Regiment, 
and served to November 1, 1759. From January 1 to November 17, 1760, he was 
a private in Captain Jotham Gay's Company, Colonel Thwing's Regiment. He 
was engaged April 27, 1775, as First Lieutenant in Captain Jacob Gould's Company, 
Colonel William Heath's Regiment, and served in this organization through ihe 
year. He may possibly have been the same officer who was Lieutenant in Captain 
Daniel Sullivan's Company, Colonel Benjamin Foster's 6th Lincoln County Regi- 
ment, at Machias in October, 1777, and Captain Thomas Robbins's Company at 
Machias in 1778; also same regiment in 1779 and 1780. He died at W r eymouth 
May 3, 1831, aged 92 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN ELLIS (sometimes called "THIRD") of 
Dedham, w r as First Lieutenant in Captain Jacob Guild's Company of Minute I\Ien 
in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. As 
Second Lieutenant in a regiment to fortify the town and harbor of Boston, he was 
granted beating orders by the Provincial Congress, April 11, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SAMUEL FOSTER, of Roxbury, was a Sergeant in 
Captain Moses Whiting's Company of Minute Men in Colonel John Greaton's 
Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. According to a return dated 
May 20, 1775, he was at that time Lieutenant in Captain Edward Payson Williams's 
Company, General Heath's Regiment at Roxbury camp- He served through the year 
and during 1776 was First Lieutenant in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, 
Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became Captain in Colonel John Greaton's 
3d Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He continued to serve in this rank until his 
death, May 6, 1778. His widow was allowed half pay from May 6, 177S, to May 6, 
1785. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN GAY, of Dedham, marched as Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Joseph Guild's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, in 
response to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 3, 1775, he was engaged 



€6 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

as Lieutenant in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, and he served through the 
year in this organization. During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John 
Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THEOPHILUS LYON, of Stoughton, was a private 
in Captain Timothy Hammant's Company from March 22 to November 16, 1762. 
Benjamin Garnett's name appeared on the roll as his master. He was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Asahel Smith's Company of militia, of Stoughton, in Colonel 
Lemuel Robinson's Regiment, April 19, 1775, on the Lexington alarm- Eight days 
later he was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain William Bent's Company, Colonel 
William Heath's Regiment, and served in this organization through the year. March 
23, 1776, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Benjamin Gill's 3d Suffolk County 
Regiment. From March 1 to April 9, 1778, he was Captain under Lieut. Colonel 
Samuel Pierce at Castle Island. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT LEMUEL MAY, of Roxbury, was probably the 
Lemuel, son of Benjamin and Mary (Williams) May, who was born February 30, 
1738. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Child's Company, Colonel 
William Heath's Regiment, April 19, 1775, on the Lexington alarm. May 10, 1776, 
he was commissioned Captain in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County 
Regiment. He served in the same regiment again from March 23 to April 5, 1778, 
""at the Roxbury lines." He was a farmer in Jamaica Plain, occupying in whole or 
part the May estate which had been in the family for three generations. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THOMAS MAYO (also called Junior) of Roxbury, 
was First Lieutenant in Captain William Draper's Company, Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He served until May 
3, 1775. May 10, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel William Mcin- 
tosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. From December 9 to 29, 1778, he was Captain 
in Colonel Eleazer Weld's detachment of militia at Hull or Castle Island. He 
served as Captain in Colonel Eleazer Brooks's Regiment of guards, from November 
7, 1777, to April 3, 1778, at Cambridge. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT OLIVER MILLS, of Needham, was a private in 
Captain Ephraim Jackson's Company from April 16 to November 7, 1760. April 
19, 1775, he was Lieutenant in Captain Robert Smith's Company, Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment. January 30, 1776, he became Lieutenant in Captain Hopestill 
Hall's Company, Colonel Lemuel Robinson's Three Months Regiment. May 10, 
1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Robert Smith's Company, 
Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. He also held the same 
rank in Captain Ebenezer Everitt's Company, Colonel Solomon Lovell's 2nd Suffolk 



COL. WILLIAM HEATHS AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 07 

County Regiment, which marched to reinforce the Continental Army for three 
months; no date given in records but probably November, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN MORSE, of Dedham, held that rank in Cap- 
tain William Bullard's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, on the Lex- 
ington alarm, April 19, 1775, serving ten days. He also marched as Lieutenant in 
Captain William Bullard's Dedham South Parish Company, Colonel William 
Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment, on the alarm of March 4, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT NATHANIEL NICHOLS, of Cohasset, was engaged 
May 16, 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Job Cushing's Company, Colonel 
William Heath's Regiment. He served through the year in this organization. He 
may have been the Captain Nathaniel Nichols, son of Nathaniel and Catherine 
(Cushing) Nichols, baptized July 30, 1749, who was a master mariner in the Navy 
under Commander in Chief Esez Hopkins. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT NATHANIEL NILES, of Braintree, marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, as Lieutenant in Captain Eliphalet Sawen's 
Company, Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's Regiment. April 28, 1775, he was engaged 
to serve in the same rank in Captain Silas Wild's Company, Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment, and he served in this organization through the year. During 
1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental 
Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT AARON PAINE (or PAYN) of Needham, was 
engaged April 27, 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Moses Whitney's Company, 
Colonel William Heath's Regiment. He served in this organization through the 
year under Colonels Heath and Greaton and in 1776, was First Lieutenant in 
Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PHINEAS PAINE (or PAIN), of Milton, was 
probably the man of that name, who at the age of 18, enlisted in Captain Josiah 
Dunber's Company, Colonel Thomas's Regiment; residence, Bridgewater; father 
or master, Barnabas Pratt; said service being from March 21 to November 7, 1760. 
He was Ensign in Captain Oliver Vose's Milton Company, Colonel Lemuel Robin- 
son's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. May 20, 1775, he was 
Lieutenant in Captain Elijah Vose's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, 
and he served under that commander and his successor, Colonel John Greaton, 
through the year. He was probably the man of that name who served as private 
three days in April, 1776, in Captain Josiah Vose's Milton Company in defense of 
the seacoast. June 26, 1776, he was commissioned Major in Colonel Ephraim 
.Wheelock's 4th Suffolk County Regiment, and was at Ticonderoga with that regi- 



68 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ment in October of that year. In November, 1776, he was absent as Assistant 
Engineer "in the train by order of the General." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ROYAL POLLOCK appears on a roll as holding 
that rank in Captain Samuel Payson's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, 
on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. No further record of service has been 
found. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ELIAS WHITON (or WHITING), of Hingham, 
was Sergeant in Captain Enoch Whiton's Company, Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775. Eight days later he was engaged as Ensign in Captain 
Jotham Loring's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, and June 22, 1775, 
was promoted to Lieutenant. He served in the regiment under Colonels Heath and 
Greaton through the year. April 5, 1776, he was commissioned Lieutenant in 
Captain Pyam Cushing's Company, Colonel Solomon Lovell's 2nd Suffolk County 
Regiment He was Captain in "Colonel Symms's Regiment" (probably Lieut. 
Colonel Symmes, of Colonel Jabez Hatch's Boston Regiment) "with guards at 
Boston" in the spring of 1778 and March 13, 1778, as Elias "Whiting" was com- 
missioned Captain in Colonel Solomon Whiting's 2nd Suffolk County Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM BACON, of Walpole, held that rank 
in Captain Sabin Mann's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, April 19, 
1775. April' 21, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Oliver 
Clapp's Company, Colonel Ephraim Wheelock's 4th Suffolk County Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN DAVIS, of Roxbury, served in that rank in 
Captain William Draper's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, on the 
Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He w r as probably the man of the same name and 
town, who in 1760 (March 6 to November 29) was a private in Captain Ephraim 
Jackson's Company. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT MOSES DRAPER, of Roxbury, held that rank in 
Captain Moses Whiting's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, on the 
Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He was a Captain in Colonel Thomas Gardner's 
Regiment, June 2, 1775, and served through the year. January 1, 1776, he became 
Captain in Colonel William Bond's 25th Regiment, Continental Army. He prob- 
ably did not serve through the year. 

' SECOND LIEUTENANT NATHAN LEWIS, of Dedham, marched as the 
junior commissioned officer in Captain William Bullard's Company, Colonel John 
Greaton's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He served as Lieuten- 
ant in Captain W r illiam Bullard's Company, Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk 
County Regiment for five days in response to the alarm of March 4, 1776. 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS CO 

SECOND LIEUTENANT EBENEZER NEWELL, of Dedham, was the son 
of Ebenezer and Elizabeth (Bullard) Newell. He served thirteen days in that rank 
in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, following the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775. May 10, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer 
Battle's Company, Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSIAH OAKS (or OAKES), of Cohasset, was 
engaged for service in that rank in Captain Job Cushing's Company, Colonel 
William Heath's Regiment, May 16, 1775. He served through the year in this 
organization under Colonels Heath and Greaton. During January- April, 1776, he 
was Ensign in Captain Seth Stower's Company, Colonel Lemuel Robinson's Three 
Months Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT DANIEL WHITE, of Brookline, held that rank 
in Captain Thomas White's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment at the 
time of the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. May 10, 1776, he was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Thomas White's Company, Colonel W r illiam Mcin- 
tosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. March 23, 1778, he joined Captain Lemuel 
May's Company, Colonel Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment, as Lieutenant, 
for service at the Roxbury lines. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ISAAC WILLIAMS, of Roxbury, served fifteen 
<lays in that rank in Captain Lemuel Childs's Company, Colonel W r illiam Heath's 
Regiment, responding to the Lexington alarm call of April 19, 1775. May 10, 1776, 
lie was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel May's Company, Colonel 
William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. 

ENSIGN SILAS ALDEN, of Needham, was called out on the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Robert Smith's Company, Colonel 
William Heath's Regiment. May 10, 1776, he w T as commissioned Second Lieuten- 
ant in Colonel William Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. From December 
<> to 20, 1776, he held the same rank in Captain Thomas Mayo's Company, Colonel 
Eleazer Weld's Regiment, on duty at Hull and Castle Island. He marched to 
Roxbury, March 23, 1778, in Captain Ebenezer Battle's Company, Colonel William 
Mcintosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment. 

ENSIGN BENJAMIN BEAL, of Hingham, was a private in Captain James 
Lincoln's Company, Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm 
call, April 19, 1775. April 27, 1775, he enlisted as Sergeant in Captain Loring's 
Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, and June 22nd was promoted Ensign. 
In October, 1775, he was Ensign in Captain Charles Cushing's Company, in this 
Tegiment at Fort Number 2. An order for him for a bounty coat or equivalent, 



70 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

was dated Cambridge, December 18, 1775. During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant 
in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. July 28, 1778, he 
was commissioned Captain to guard "troops of convention. " From July 11, to 
December 12, 1778, he was Captain in Colonel Jacob Gerrish's Regiment, at and 
about Boston. 

ENSIGN ISAAC BULLARD, of Dedham, was Sergeant in Captain Joseph 
Guild's Company of Minute Men in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment. May 3 r 
1775, he enlisted as Ensign in Colonel William Heath's Regiment, and served under 
Colonels Heath and Greaton through the year, being stationed at Fort Number 2 
in October. 

ENSIGN ISAIAH BUSSEY, of Stoughton, served first as a private in Captain 
James Endecott's Company, Colonel Lemuel Robinson's Regiment, on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. Eight days later he enlisted as Ensign in Captain William- 
Bent's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment. He evidently continued to 
serve in this organization under Colonels Heath and Greaton, for on October 5, 
1775, he was w r ith the command at Fort Number 2. In 1776 he was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army, until August 3 r 
when he was promoted First Lieutenant. January 1, 1777, he became Captain Lieu- 
tenant in Colonel John Crane's Artillery Regiment in the Continental Army and 
served to June, 1783. He died in January, 1785. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

ENSIGN JONATHAN DORR, of Roxbury, served in Captain Moses Whit- 
ing's Company of Minute Men, in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment on the Lexing- 
ton alarm, April 19, 1775. His name appears as Ensign in Captain Edward Payson 
Williams's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, in a list dated June 23,. 
1775, and he continued to serve through the year under Colonels Heath and 
Greaton. 

ENSIGN JOSHUA GOULD, of Wrentham, held that rank in Captain John 
Boyd's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 
19, 1775, and continued five days, when he was engaged to serve under the same 
officers in the Provincial Army. He continued through the year. In 1776 he was 
Second Lieutenant in Colonel John Greaton's 24th Regiment, Continental Army. 
September 27, 1777, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Joseph 
Lovell's Company, Colonel Benjamin Hawes, 4th Suffolk County Regiment. A 
little later he was in Captain Amos Ellis's Company in the same regiment, and 
served to October 31, 1777. November 3, 1777, he was commissioned First Lieuten- 
ant in Captain Moses Adams's Company. Colonel Eleazer Brooks's 3d Middlesex 



COL. WILLIAM HEATH'S AND COL. JOHN GREATON'S REGIMENTS 71 

County Regiment, said company having been commanded from November 3 to 
December 12, 1777, by Captain Ezekiel Plimpton. June 29, 1709, he was commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant in Captain John Ellis's Company, Colonel Benjamin 
Hawes's 4th Suffolk County Regiment. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM HARMON (no town given) was commissioned April 
2$> 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Silas Wild's Company, Colonel William 
Heath's Regiment. He served through the year in the same company under Colonels 
Heath and Greaton. In 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John Greaton's 
24th Regiment, Continental Army. 

ENSIGN SAMUEL SHAW, of Boston, son of Francis and Sarah (Burt) Shaw, 
was born in Boston, October 2, 1754. He was educated at the Boston Latin School 
under Master James Lovell and became familiar with the best Latin authors, con- 
tinuing to read them later in his leisure hours in camp life and on his voyages. He 
was Ensign in Captain Jacob Gould's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, 
in May, 1775. In 1776 he was Second Lieutenant in Colonel Henry Knox's Artil- 
lery Regiment, Continental Army, and in May was appointed Regimental Adjutant. 
January 1, 1777, he became Captain Lieutenant in Colonel John Crane's 3d Regi- 
ment, Continental Artillery. In May he w T as appointed Brigade Major in General 
Knox's Brigade. April 17, 1780, he was made Captain in the above regiment, 
serving in it until June 17, 1783, when he was transferred to the Corps of Artillery. 
From June to November, 1783, he was Aide-de-Camp to General Knox. At the 
termination of his active service in the Revolution, General Washington wrote of 
him: "I am enabled to certify that, throughout the whole of his service, he has 
greatly distinguished himself in everything which could entitle him to the character 
of an intelligent, active and brave officer." Major General Knox wrote: "This is 
to certify that the possessor, Captain Samuel Shaw, has borne a commission in the 
artillery of the United States of America upwards of eight years, more than seven of 
which he has been particularly attached to the subscriber, in the capacities of adju- 
tant, brigade-major, and aide-de-camp. In the various and arduous duties of his 
several stations, he has, in every instance evinced himself an intelligent, active, and 
gallant officer, and as such he has peculiarly endeared himself to his numerous 
acquaintances. This testimony is given unsolicited on his part. It is dictated by 
the pure principles of affection and gratitude, inspired by an unequivocal attachment 
during a long and trying period of the American war. 

Given under my hand and seal at West Point, upon Hudson's River, the 5th 
day of January, 1784. 

H. Knox, 

Major-General." 



72 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

He performed valuable services in the work of disbanding the army and was 
active in the formation of the Society of the Cincinnati, serving as secretary of the 
committee of officers who inaugurated it. After the war he was assisted by a com- 
pany of capitalists and made commercial agent for them in a voyage to China. 
Shortly after his return in May, 1785, he was appointed secretary in the War office 
under General Knox, but in the following year returned to China as Consul of the 
United States. This office he held until his death, which occurred at sea on the 
way home, May 30, 1794. Honorable Josiah Quincy edited the "Journals of Major 
Samuel Shaw" and in the preface wrote; "It was my happiness, in my early youth, 
to enjoy the privilege of his acquaintance and correspondence, and now, after the 
lapse of more than fifty years, I can truly say that, in the course of a long life, I 
have never known an individual of a character more elevated and chivalric, acting 
according to a purer standard of morals, imbued with a higher sense of honor, and 
uniting more intimately the qualities of the gentleman, the soldier, the scholar, and 
the Christian." Drake in his biographical notice in the "Cincinnati of Massachu- 
setts" states that he was made a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, August 25, 1792, and was appointed by Governor Hancock aide to Major- 
General Henry Jackson, with the rank of Major in the Massachusetts militia, August 
30, 1792. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM SUMNER, of Dorchester, may have been the man of that 
name who as a resident of Milton, was in Colonel Samuel Miller's Company and 
Regiment, in August, 1757. May 20, 1775, he was Ensign in Captain Elijah Vose's 
Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, at the Dorchester camp. He served 
through the year in this regiment under Colonels Heath and Greaton. 

ENSIGN JAMES TISDALE, of Medfield, marched as Sergeant in Captain 
Sabin Mann's Company, Colonel John Greaton's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. . May 20, 1775, he became Ensign in Captain Moses Whiting's 
Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment. His name was given in an alarm 
list of Captain Sabin Mann's Company of Medfield, dated June 10, 1776. April 
1, 1777, he was made First Lieutenant in Colonel John Greaton's 3d Regiment, 
Massachusetts Line, and May 3d, 1778, was promoted Captain. He was present 
at the surrender of Burgoyne and served through the war. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. He died at Walpole, November 13, 1832, 
aged 86 years. 

ENSIGN JOSIAH UPHAM, of Needham, marched as Ensign of Captain 
Aaron Smith's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775, and served nine days. 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S 

REGIMENT 

Colonel Ebenezer Learneivs Minute Men's Regiment, April 10, 1775. 

colonel ebenezer learned's 1-ith regiment, provincial akmy, april-july, 177'). 

Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 4th Regiment, Armt of the United Colonies, Jult-Dbcehbbb. 1775 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



This organization, composed almost entirely of Worcester County men, responded 
to the Lexington alarm call, April 19, 1775, as a fully formed regiment, with field 
and staff officers and nine companies, as shown by the following: 

"A Muster roll of Colonel Learned's Regt. Field and staff officers in a minute 
Regiment the 19th of April to ye 24th not including the 24th day. 

Field and Staff Officers names Rank Place Eng. 

Ebenezer Learned Colonel Oxford Apr. 19 

Danforth Keyes Lt. Colonel Western " " 

Jonathan Holman Major Sutton " " 

Seth Bannister Adjt. Brookfield " " 

Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, Feby. ye 5, 1776 Col # Ebenezer Learned 
made Solemn Oath to the truth of the above roll by him Subscribed, to the best of 
his knowledge. 

Before Saml. Hamilton, Just. Peace, through ye Colony. 

In Council Feb. 5th, 1776, Read & allowed and warrant issued to be drawn on 
the treasurer." 

The above statement is found in the Massachusetts Archives volume 26, page 
110. On page 187 of the same volume we find the following list of field and staff 
officers, April 19, 1775; ""''.. 

"Col. Ebenezer Learned, Oxford. 
Lt. Colonel Jonathan Holman, Sutton. 
Major Seth Read, Uxbridge. 
Adjt. Ebenr. Waters, Sutton." 



74 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



The line officers of this Minute Men's Regiment were as follows; 
"Captains. Lieutenants. Ensigns. 



Nathaniel Healy 
Jacob Davis 
Ebenezer Crafts 
John Putnam 
James Greenwood 
Andre w Eliot 
John Crowl 
Arthur Dagget 
John Sibley 



David Keith 
William Campbell 
William Tucker 
Jona Woodbury 
John Jacobs 
Isaac Bolster 
Samuel Earned 
Bartho Woodbury 
Sam Dagget 



Samuel Healy 

Cornet Jona Day 
2nd Lt. John Woodbury 
2nd Lt. Abijah Burbank 
2nd Lt. Asa Waters 
.Andrew Crowle 
March Chase 



Adjt. Seth Bannister." 



April 21, 1775, Colonel Learned was ordered to march his regiment to Roxbury 
to join General Thomas. 

"A Muster Roll of Coll Learned's Field & staff officers made up according to 
order from April 24th when first entered to and including ye 24th Day. 

Field & staff officers Rank 



Ebenezer Learnard 
Danforth Keyes 
Jonathan Holman 
Joseph Bomon 
Seth Bannister 
Daniel Fiske 
Percival Hall 
Anthony Whitcom 



Coll 

Lt. Coll 

Majr 

Chaplain 

Adjt 

Surgeon 



Mate 



Q Master 



Place of abode 


Time 


Oxford 


Apr 24 


Western 


Do 


Sutton 


Do 


Oxford 


June 1 


Brookfield 


Apr 24 


Oxford 


Do 


N. Braintree 


June 24 


Western 


Apr 24 



Ebenezer Learnard Coll. 

In Council Apr. 4, 1776." 

The following entry appears in the records of the Second Provincial Congress 
under date of May 2, 1775; "Moved, That the sense of this Congress might be 
taken, whether the regiment he is now raising may be a regiment of grenadiers: the 
matter was ordered to subside." 

"In Committee of Safety, May 19, 1775, Cambridge. 

Collo Ebenezer Larnard having satisfied this Committee that his Regiment is 
Htar full: w r e recommend to the Congrefs that said Regiment be Commifsioned 
accordingly. 

Richd Devens, Chairman." 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 7.", 

"A Return of Coll Ebr Learnard's Ridgment In camp at Roxbury. 
Field officers 

1 Ebenr Learnard 

2 Danforth Keyes 

3 Jonathan Holman 



Captains 



John Grainger — 55 men. 
Samll Billings — 56 men. 
Peter Heaward — 71 men. 
Addom Marting — 10 men. 
Wilm Camppel — 63 men. 
Samll Courtis — 55 men. 
Isaac E olfton — 41 men. 
Arthur Dagget — 57 men. 
Nathaniel Healey — 3S men. 



«• 



476 
Joel Green Abfent or Recruiting 

May 19, 1775." 
"A List of the Officers in Colol Learned's Regiment 
Captains Lieuts. Ensigns 



Peter Harwood Asa Danforth Benj Pollard 

Adam Martin Abel Mafon Benjn Felton 

John Granger Mathw Gray 

Joel Green David Prouty 

Saml Billings Barns Sears Stepn Gorham 

William Campbel Reubn Davis Thos Fifh 

Arthur Daget Jonath Carol John Ha ward 

Nathal Healey Salem Town 

Samuel Curtis Saml Learned Wm Polly 

Isaac Bolfter John Hafelton 

-. ' • ) 
Lt Col J. Danforth Keyes 

Majr Jonathan Holman 

Adjutant Bennifter '~\ 

May 23 
Refolved That Commifsions be given to the Officers of Coll Learned's Regiment 
agreeable to the above list. 



76 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

1 

Received the Coraraifsions for the above Officers & four blank Commifsions for 
ye Enfigns. 

Ebenezer Learned." 
» * Col Learned's Regiment 



Captains 



Isaac Bolster, Sutton, Brookfield, Rochester, Uxbridge, Upton. 

Carriel (late Daggett) Sutton, Douglas, Hardwick, Uxbridge, etc. 

Samuel Billings, Hardwick, N. Braintree, Greenwich. 

Wm. Campbell, Oxford, Charlton, etc. 

Peter Harwood, Brookfield & Western. 

Sam'l. Curtis, Charlton, Oxford, Dudley, Milton, etc. 

John Granger, New Braintree, Western, etc. Barre. 

Adam Martin, Sturbridge. 

Joel Green, Rutland, Spencer, Brookfield, etc. 

Colonel Learned's Regiment is named in a list dated June 16, 1776, of "Troops 
Engaged in the Sen-ice of the Province now at the Camp at Roxbury and at the 
Several Parts to the Southward." 

When the Army of the United Colonies was organized in July, 1775, Colonel 
Learned's Regiment became the 4th. August 9, 1775, Colonel Learned was ordered 
with his regiment to join General Thomas's Brigade. This organization served at 
Roxbury through the remainder of the year. 

In the "History of Oxford," page 139, we find the following account of the 
mustering out of this regiment ; 

"1776, Jan. 1, Paraded, had our guns inspected and returned our ammunition. 

Jan. 2. This morning drums beat for prayers and we attended after which the 
Col. Dismissed us with honor." 

The following table shows the strength of the regiment each month during its 
term of service. 

Staff Non Corns. 

56 

7 60 

5 60 

5- 60 

5 61 

5 60 

5 55 



Date 


Com. Off. 


June 16 


32 


July 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 17 


29 

32 
32 
32 


Nov. 18 


32 


Dec. 30 


31 



Rank and File 


Tot a 


469 


557 


489 


585 


459 


556 


476 


573 


454 


552 


450 


547 


368 


459 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 77 

The sixty-one commissioned officers who served during 1775 in Colonel 
Learned's Regiment, attained rank as follows during the Revolution; 1 brigadier 
general, 3 colonels, 2 lieut. colonels, 3 majors, 27 captains, 14 first lieutenants, 3 
second lieutenants, 1 cornet, 3 ensigns, 1 surgeon, 1 surgeon's mate, 1 chaplain and 
one "adjutant" who served without commission. 

COLONEL EBEXEZER LEARNED, of Oxford, son of Colonel Ebenczcr and 
Deborah (Haynes) Learned, was born April 18, 1723. His father, Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned Senior, was one of the first settlers of Oxford. The house which he then 
built was still standing in good habitable condition as late as 1S75. He held various 
ranks of ensign, captain, major and in 1747, colonel. He was noted for his strength 
and courage and many stories are told of his acts of bravery in his relations with 
the Indians. November 27, 1750, the son Ebenezer had deeded to him by his 
father the colonel, 200 acres of land on Prospect Hill where he built a house whii h 
was standing as late as 1892, according to Daniels's "History of Oxford." He was 
Lieutenant in Captain John Fry's Company, from August 8 to December 12, 1755 
and in 1756, was in Colonel John Chandler Jr's Worcester County Regiment. Sep- 
tember 9th of that year he was Captain in Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment at 
Lake George, being described in the rolls as "Husbandman, birthplace Oxford, age 
28." The following extract is copied from an interesting document found in the 
Archives ; 

"Worcester, April 22, 1756. 

The bearer, Captain Ebenezer Learned, is to have command of a company of 
men in Col. Ruggles's Regiment and as guns and stores will be wanted for his 

company, he will engage to bring them up if you please 

What Learned engages to do will be faithfully done." 

In the campaign of 1757, he was Captain in Colonel Joseph Fry's Regiment at 
Lake George. He was Selectman of Oxford in 1758 and each year following :o 
1764. After his return from the French war he kept a public house. In 1773 he 
was appointed to collect the stock of ammunition yet outstanding. 

Captain Ebenezer Learned was chosen a member of the Worcester County Co 1- 
vention from Oxford, August 9, 1774, and delegate the First Provincial Congre^, 
September 29, 1774. A meeting of the "commission officers" of the 2nd Regiment, 
was held at Oxford, October 5, 1774, at which the following officers were chosen: 
Ebenezer Learned, of Oxford, Colonel; Timothy Sibley, of Sutton, Lieut. Colonel; 
Daniel Plimpton, of Sturb ridge, First Major and William Larned of Dudley, Second 
Major. January 12, 1775, he was chosen to represent his town in the Second Pro- 
vincial Congress at Cambridge. He was moderator of the Oxford town meeting, 



7S THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

April 17, 1775. Two days later he commanded a Regiment of Minute Men on the 
Lexington alarm and served five days. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Colonel 
of a regiment in the Provincial Army, which was numbered die 14th. His commis- 
sion as Colonel was delivered to him May 20, 1775. He served with his regiment 
at Roxbury, and when the army was reorganized in July, 1775, his regiment became 
the 4th in the Army of the United Colonies and served at Roxbury during the 
remainder of the year. January, 1776, he was made Colonel of the 3d Regiment, 
Continental Army, and served in that rank until May, when he requested to be 
relieved on account of sickness. His Lieut. Colonel, William Shepard, served as 
Commandant of the regiment until October 2nd when he was promoted Colonel. 
The official records of the Massachusetts House of Representatives show that on 
February 6, 1777, Colonel Ebenezer Learned was chosen Colonel of the 15th Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Line, and that the choice was concurred in by the Council on 
the following day. This is difficult to understand as Colonel Timothy Bigelow had 
been in command of that regiment since its organization January 1, 1777, and 
continued to hold that command to 1781. April 2, 1777, Colonel Learned was 
chosen Brigadier General in the Continental Army. He immediately proceeded to 
Fort Edward and at the evacuation of Ticonderoga succeeded in removing the 
remains of the stores. He then marched his brigade to the relief of Fort Stanwix. 
In the first battle of Saratoga (Stillwater) September 19, 1777, this brigade in 
Arnold's Division, played a very important part. Neilson in describing the battle 
£-"vys; "Towards the close of the day, General Learned's Brigade with an additional 
raiment, I think Marshall's, were principally engaged on a rise of ground west 
of the cottage (Freeman's) with the British Grenadiers and a regiment of British 
infantry, and bravely contested the ground till night." This heroic charge of 
Arnold's men, made contrary to the orders of General Gates, saved the day and 
made possible the final defeat and capture of Burgoyne. On September 26, 1777, 
General Gates issued the following; "The Public business having so entirely en- 
gaged the General's attention that he has not been properly at leisure to return his 
grateful thanks to General Poor's and General Learned's brigades, to the regiment 
of Riflemen, Corps of Light Infantry and Colonel Marshall's Regiment, for their 
valient behavior in the action of the 19th inst. which will forever establish and 
confirm the reputation of the arms of the United States." In the second battle 
of Saratoga, October 7, 1777, General Learned played a very important part. A 
part of his brigade with the brigade of General Poor were ordered to attack the 
British left, while Morgan with fifteen hundred men was to attack the British 
flanking party under General Fraser. Lossing narrates that; "About half past two 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT , 

the conflict began. The troops of Poor and Learned marched steadily up the gentle 
slope of the eminence on which the British grenadiers, and part of the artillery under 
Ackland and Williams, were stationed, and, true to their orders not to fire until 
after the first discharge of the enemy, pressed on in awful silence towards the bat- 
talions and batteries above them. Suddenly a terrible discharge of musket-balls 
and grape shot made great havoc among the branches of the trees over their heads, 
but scarcely a shot took effect among the men. This was the signal to break the 
silence of our troops, and with a loud shout, they sprang forward, delivered their 
fire in rapid volleys, and opened right and left to avail themselves of the covering 
of the trees on the margin of the ridge on which the artillery was posted. The contest 
now became fierce and destructive. The Americans rushed up to the very mouths 
•of the cannon, and amid the carriages of the heavy field-pieces they struggled for 
victory. Valor of the highest order on both sides marked the conflict, and for a time 
the scale seemed equipoised. Five times one of the cannon was taken and retaken, 
but atTast it remained in possession of the Republicans as the British fell back." 
-Colonel Cilley turned his piece upon the enemy and with his own ammunition 
opened fire. Major Ackland was severely wounded and Major Williams taken 
prisoner. Having lost their superior officers the British grenadiers and artillerymen 
fled in confusion, and left the field to the Americans. In the mean time Morgan's 
-attack upon the British right had been successful. He had rushed down upon 
Fraser's flanking party and driven them back to the lines, continuing the attack 
upon the British right until they were thrown into confusion. Major Dearborn 
•coming up with fresh troops attacked the British in front and they broke and fled 
in terror, but were rallied again by Earl Balcarras and led into action. 

Arnold had watched the battle with eagerness and although deprived of command 
and authority to fight, he leaped upon his horse and spurring him on to escape 
Major Armstrong whom Gates had sent after him to order him back he placed 
himself at the head of three regiments of General Learned's Brigade and immediately 
led them against the British center. General Wilkinson, Gates adjutant, described 
the part which General Learned played in this part of the day's fighting as follows; 
"About sunset I perceived General Learned advancing towards the enemy with his 

brigade in open column when I rode up to him. On saluting this brave 

old soldier he inquired 'Where can I be put in with most advantage?' I had parti- 
cularly examined the ground between the left and the Germans and the light infantry 
occupied by the provincialists from whence I had observed a slack fire; I therefore 
recommended to General Learned to incline to his right and attack at that point; 
fce did so with great gallantry; the provincialists abandoned their position and 



80 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

fled; the German flank was by this means uncovered, they were assaulted vigorously, 
and overturned in live minutes and retreated in disorder leaving their commander 

Breyman, dead on the field." General Learned's Brigade Major, 

Seth Bannister in a letter to his wife wrote; "Brig. Gen. Learned was left in pos 
sion and commander of a large encampment of the enemy's with a number of his 
brigade and other troops till Generals Lincoln, Glover and Nixon relieved him 
about twelve o'clock at night." 

On the morning of the 11th, General Gates, believeing that Burgoyne and his 
troops were in full retreat, ordered the brigades of Generals Nixon and Glover and 
Morgan's corps, to cross the creek and fall upon Burgoyne's rear. It was soon found 
that the British were in ambush and the brigades of Generals Patterson and Learned 
were hastened to support the brigades above mentioned. General Wilkinson learning 
that the British were in battle array brought word to General Learned to retreat, 
which he very reluctantly did just in time to avert disaster, as the patriots on the 
right had already done so under orders, leaving General Learned's Brigade exposed. 
After the surrender of Burgoyne, General Learned marched his brigade to Albany. 
The strenuous campaign had brought on his old difficulties and by the advice of 
Dr. Potts he was given a furlough in hopes that he might regain his health. His 
brigade marched on down the river and was at Fishkill, November 10th, with 
Colonel John Bailey of the 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts Line, in command. This 
we learn from a letter written by Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Alexander Hamilton 
to the commander-in-chief, in which he stated that the men were "in a state of mutiny 
for want of pay." This march finally ended at Valley Forge in December, the 
brigade forming a part of the Patriot Army which went into winter quarters there. 
General Learned's Brigade at this time in Major General Baron DeKalb's Division, 
consisted of the following Massachusetts Line Regiments, the 2nd under Colonel 
John Bailey, the 8th under Colonel Michael Jackson and the 9th commanded by 
Colonel James Wesson. 

General Learned's health did not improve as he had hoped and in the spring 
he sent in the following letter of resignation ; 

"Boston, March 12, 1778. 
Most Hond Sr. 

I have served in this warfare since the beginning as a Colonel of a Regt. till May, 
1776, when by indisposition by reason of certain fatigues in the army I found 
myself unequal and resigned the service. Since I recovered a little the Honorable 
Continental Congress on the second day of April, 1777, appointed me to the Com- 
mand of a Brig. Genl. I immediately took the field, proceeded to Fort Edward,. 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 81 

and at the evacuation of Ticonderoga had great fatigue in securing the remains of 
our stores that way. Directly on that marched my brigade to the relief of Fort 
Stanwix. Immediately on the return we had the satisfaction of reducing Burgoyne's 
Army with much fatigue, and was personally and brigade in the severe but victor- 
ious actions of Sept. 19, and Oct. 7, and after that army was imprisoned, we took, 
a forced march to Albany to stop the progress of the enemy that way. All which 
brought on my former difficulties, and by advice of Doct. Potts, I took a furlough of 
Gen. Gates to retire from the army till I was well; the receipt of which with my 
surgeon's certificate I have enclosed. And I find I am quite unequal to act vigor- 
ously in my country's cause in the field, and to eat the Pubiick's bread and not do 
the service I am not disposed, and I think I am better able to serve in a private or 
civil than in a military character. All which I think is my duty to myself and 
my family and country to pray your Honor, the Congress, to discharge me from the 
service. 

And I shall remain, as before 

Your Honor's Very Humble Serv't. 

Ebenezer Learned, B. G." 

Daniels in the "History of Oxford" wrote of him; "His patriotism has never 

been questioned. He was unswerving in his devotion to his country, 

and at the time of Shays's rebellion he was almost the only man in his section' of 
the town who adhered to the government. He was a marked man in this controversy 
and as related, the Shays men decided on a certain night to pay him a visit. Having 
heard of their plans he took down a favorite gun which he had carried in his Revo- 
lutionary campaigns, and procuring a musket from his son-in-law Adjutant Pray, 
put them in order and loaded them with powder and ball, making no secret of what 
he had done. The visit was indefinitely postponed." He was prominent in civil 
affairs, serving as Selectman twenty- five years between 1758 and 1794, and several 
years as Moderator. He held several other offices and was a Justice of the Peace 
for many years. He was one of the original proprietors of Livermore, Maine, which 
was granted to soldiers of the French w r ar. In 1793, he was granted a pension. 

In the "Records of Oxford" we read; "that in personal appearance General 

Learned was tall and strongly built, being six feet and two inches in height 

his frame being capable of enduring great fatigue. His countenance expressed 
gentleness and calmness and yet there were depicted dignity and command. He was 

tndowed by nature with a sound judgment and discerning mind 

His step and bearing were peculiar to himself, his tread was heavy and measured. 
In conversation all were impressed with awe in his presence." General Learned, 



82 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

■according to Daniels, whom we have already quoted, was "esteemed as a town-man 
and as a neighbor, was an efficient member of the church, a constant attendant on 
public worship, and for many years active in ecclesiastical affairs." He died April 
1, 1801, and was buried near his father's grave in the old burying ground at Oxford 
Plain. 

LIEUT COLONEL JONATHAN HOLM AN of Sutton, son of Captain Solo- 
mon and Mercy (Waters) Holman, was born August 13, 1732. He was a private 
in Captain Solomon Holman's Company, Colonel John Chandler's Jr's Regiment, 
in August, 1759. It is stated in the "History of Sutton, that he saw "long service 
in the French war and retired with the rank of Major." This may be so but the 
records in the Archives fail to show the attainment of any such rank in that war 
t>y a man of this name. "Lieutenant" Jonathan Holman was a member of a commit- 
tee of the Worcester County Convention, September 6, 1774, and "Colonel" Jonathan 
Holman was appointed a committee to wait on Reverend Mr. Fish, at a convention 
■of the same county, January 27, 1775. In a list of field officers of Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's Regiment, April 19, 1775, Jonathan Holman's name appears as Lieut. 
Colonel. (See Massachusetts Archives, v. 26, p. 187.) On page 110 of the same 
Tolume he is given as Major while Danforth Keyes is given as Lieut. Colonel. April 
24, 1775, Jonathan Holman was engaged as Major in Colonel Learned's Regiment 
and he served in that rank through the year. January 23, 1776, he was appointed 
Major in Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. February 7, 
1776, he was commissioned Colonel of the 5th Worcester County Regiment. June 
26, 1776, Colonel Holman's Regiment with the regiments of Colonels Simeon Cary 
and Isaac Smith were formed into a brigade to be commanded by General John 
Fellows. They marched to New York but owing to the fact that the rank and file 
were mostly raw racruits, did not distinguish themselves in the face of the enemy 
:as has been shown in the article upon Colonel John Fellows. (See Massachusetts 
"Magazine, v. II, p. 147.) April 8, 1779, he addressed a petition to the Council 
""stating that he had been in service since the commencement of the war but on 
account of ill health was no longer able to endure hardships and asking to be 
dismissed from office." He was granted leave to resign April 24, 1779. He was 
•appointed a member of the committee on the Articles of Confederation, January 8, 
1778. "After the Revolution he raised a body of men and marched to Petersham 
to help suppress Shays's rebellion. It was said of him by his neighbors, that he 
;got so wrought up by the events of the war that he never could talk about anything 
else to the end of his days. He cherished great pride and high hopes of the infant 
republic, so that when the Continental money began to decline, he stoutly main- 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT S3 

taincd that the government would never dishonor itself by refusing to redeem it; 
always accepted it in payment of dues; frequently bought it to sustain its credit, 
until his property was largely invested in it. When at last that foulest blot on our 
national escutcheon — repudiation — was consummated, he was mortified and justly 
indignant. After the war he rode to Portland on the way to his sons on his war 
horse, a very spirited animal and was the first to announce to the people of that 
town the news of peace. He died February 25, 1S14, at the venerable age of 
eighty-four. 

LIEUT. COLONEL J. DANFORTH KEYES son of Solomon and Sarah Keyes 
was born in Western (now Warren), about 1740. At the age of nineteen, he 
enlisted, March 30, 1759, as a private in Captain Samuel Robinson's Company, 
Brigadier General Ruggles's Regiment, having served on a former expedition to 
Lake George. From June 30 to December 2, 1760, he was a Sergeant in Captain 
Robert Field's Company. In June 1771, he was Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Josiah Putnam's (Western) Company, Colonel John Murray's Regiment. He was 
Lieut. Colonel of Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, April 19, 1775, according 
to a sworn statement made by Colonel Learned, February- 5, 1776. April 24, 1775, 
he was engaged to serve in that rank in the Provincial regiment under Colonel 
Learned and served through the year. He was chosen by ballot in the House of 
Representatives, May 7, 1777, Colonel of a regiment raised for the defense of Boston 
Harbor. He received his commission on the following day. June 27, 1777, he was 
engaged to serve for six months from July 1, 1777, as Colonel of a regiment for 
Rhode Island service. He died in Warren, September 14, 1826, aged S6 years. 

MAJOR SETH READ of Uxbridge, was the son of Lieutenant John and Lucy 
Read. He was born in Uxbridge March 6, 1746. His name appears as Major of 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, April 19, 1776, in a list of field and staff 
officers, filed away in v. 26, p. 187, Massachusetts Archives. May 7, 1775, he was 
engaged as Lieut. Colonel of Colonel John Paterson's Regiment and served in that 
command through the year. January 1, 1776, he became Lieut. Colonel of Colonel 
John Paterson's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. He became insane in August 
1776, and was retired from service. He evidently recovered from his mental ailment 
for he served as Town Clerk of Uxbridge in 1777 and 8. 

ADJUTANT SETH BANISTER (or BANNISTER) of Brookfield, son of 
Seth and Frances (Hinds) Banister, was born in Brookfield December 7, 1739. He 
"Was a private in Captain Andrew Dalrymple's Company, Colonel Jedediah Preble's 
Regiment, from April 10 to November 7, 1758. He may have been the man of that 
name who served in the expedition to Fort William Henry in 1757, and at Crown 



■*&&.'■ 



84 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Point in 1756. According to the sworn statement of Colonel Learned he was Adju- 
tant of his regiment, April 19, 1775. He was appointed Adjutant of Colonel 
Learned's Regiment in the Provincial Army, April 24, 1775, and served through 
the year. Through 1776 he was Adjutant of Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regi- 
ment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became First Lieutenant in Colonel 
\Villiam Shepard's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and was promoted Captain 
April 1, 1778. He was Brigade Major in General Learned's Brigade at the battle 
of Saratoga. He served through the war and retired January 1, 1783. He died 
in Brookfield, November 7, 1S19, aged 80 years. 

ADJUTANT EBENEZER WATERS of Sutton, son of Richard (Richard, 
John, Richard of Salem) was born about 1739. He entered service September 24, 
1756, in Captain John Learned's Company, and in August 1757, was a private in 
Captain John Sibley's Company, Colonel John Chandler Jrs. Regiment which 
marched to assist in the relief of Fort William Henry. He served as Adjutant of 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, from April 19, 1775 to May 1, 1775. He 
claimed that "by mistake he was not allowed his full time on Colonel Learned's 
roll," and was given an additional allowance of £1, by resolve of March 15, 1777. 
He was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety, in 
March 1779 and in the following August was a representative from Sutton to the 
Worcester County Convention at Worcester, and also of the convention at Concord. 
In December, 1780, he served on a committee at Sutton, to procure soldiers. He 
again served as delegate to a Worcester County Convention in March, 17S4. His 
occupation was that of surveyor, civil engineer, conveyancer, etc. In 1792 he 
presented a bell to the Sutton meeting house. His death occurred February 2, 1S08,. 
at the age of sixty-eight and one-half years. 

SURGEON DANIEL FISKE, son of Isaac and Hannah (Haven) Fiske, was 
born in Framingham about 1751. He studied with Doctor White, a noted physician 
of Salem and settled in Oxford. His name appeared on a roll of the officers of 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775, but was crossed out. April 24 he was engaged to serve as Surgeon 
of Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment in the Provincial Army, holding that office 
for three months and fifteen days and probably through the year. In July and 
August, 1780, he served twelve days as Surgeon of Colonel Jacob Davis's 5th Regi- 
ment, Worcester County Militia, on a Rhode Island alarm. 

SURGEON'S MATE PERCIVAL HALL of New Braintree, son of Thomas 
and Judith (Chase) Hall, was born in Sutton, March 15, (or 26) 1741. He became 
a physician and surgeon and settled in practice at New Braintree in 1764. June 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED' S REGIMENT So 

24, 1775, he was engaged as Surgeon's Mate of Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regi- 
ment, and served under that commander through the year. In 1793 he removed 
to Boston and practiced his profession there. In the "Hall Genealogy" it is stated 
that a letter written in his old age to his son Timothy, "indicates that he possessed 
a good deal of intellectual vigor as well as parental affection." He died in Boston 
January 24, 1827. 

CHAPLAIN JOSEPH BOWMAN, of Oxford, son of Joseph and Thankful 
(Forbush) Bowman, was born in New Braintree, January 21, 1735. He graduated 
from Harvard in 1761 and was ordained August 31, 1762 in the Old South Church 
in Boston, as a missionary to the Indians at Onohoquaque on the Susquehanna 
River, to which place he soon went. Upon his return from there he preached for a 
short time in Westborough and then went to Oxford where he was installed pastor 
November 14, 1764. June 1, 1775, he was engaged as Chaplain of Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's Regiment, serving several months and probably through the year. In the 
"History of Oxford," we are told that in 1784, he removed to Barnard, Vermont, 
where he "rpde about the town on horseback with his cocked hat and flowing wig 

and was much respected for his uprightness, talents 

and learning. He taught the classics to young men who were fitting for college and 
greatly encouraged learning." In the same book it is stated that an aged resident of 
Barnard wrote "We think parson Bowman made us and made us better than a bad 
man would." He died April 27, 1806. 

QUARTERMASTER ANTHONY WHITCOM, of Western, began service in 
that rank April 24, 1775, in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, according to a 
roll signed by Colonel Learned and presented to the Council, April 4, 1776. No 
further reference to service in the Revolution by him, has been found. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL BILLINGS of Hardwick served as a private in Captain 
Ebenezer Goss's Company,- from March 27 to November 13, 1762. He entered 
service in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment April 24, 1775, and served through 
the year. August 13, 1776, he was commissioned Adjutant of the 2nd Regiment, 
raised to reinforce the army at Ticonderoga. 

CAPTAIN ISAAC BOLSTER of Sutton, was born in TJxbridge, about 1738. 
In 1758, he was a member of Captain John Fry's Company, Colonel Timothy 
RuggWs Regiment, on an expedition to Lake George. March 30, 1759, he enlisted 
in Captain Jeduthan Baldwin's Company, Colonel John Chandler Jr's. Regiment, 
serving the last part of the year as Sergeant. From May 14, 1760, to January 14, 
3761, he was Sergeant in Captain Jonathan Butterfleld's Company, and from June 
4, 1761 to June 30 1702, he held the same rank in Captain Job Williams's 
Company. 



86 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

He was First Lieutenant in Captain Andrew Eliot's Company, Colonel Ebeneze* 
Learned's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. In May he became 
Captain under the same commander in the Provincial Army and served through the 
year. During 1776, he was Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment, 
Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM CAMPBELL of Oxford, was the son of Reverend John 
Campbell, the first minister of Oxford. He was born April 2, 1734. In the "History 
of Oxford" it is stated that he was "an energetic man of good business capa< ities, 

the owner of the homestead after his father's death 

He was in the Louisburg expedition." He was Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer 
Crafts 2nd Troop of Horse in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regi- 
ment, in 1771. He was Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer Crafts's Troop, Colonel 
Ebenezer Learned's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, and April 
24, "enlisted" as Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment and served 
through the year. In the "History of Oxford" the statement is made that "after the 
war he lived for a time in Brookline and returned about 17S3 to Oxford, soon after 
lemoved to Putney, Vermont and thence to Castleton, where he died. 

CAPTAIN JONATHAN CARROLL (or CARRIEL) of Sutton, "enlisted"' 
as Lieutenant in Captain Arthur Dagget's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 
Provisional Army Regiment, April 24, 1775. After the death of Captain Dagget in 
August, 1775, he became commander of the company. In 1776, he was Captain in 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment, Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL CURTIS, of Charlton, was Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Samuel Mower's 3d Worcester Company, Colonel John Chandler's Regiment. March 
1, 1763 and 1771 w T as Captain in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County 
Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain of 
the South Company of Minute Men of Charlton. Five days later he was engaged to 
serve in the Provincial Army and in a list of Captains in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 
Regiment, dated May 23, 1775, we find his name. He served through the year and 
during 1776 was Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment, Continental 
Army. 

CAPTAIN EBENEZER CRAFTS of Sturbridge, son of Captain Joseph and 
•Susannah (Warner) Craft, was born in Pomfret, Connecticut, September 22, 1740. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1759, "studied theology but failing to secure a 
parish, gave it up and went into business." In 1768 he settled in Woodstock, then 
went to Pomfret and later to Sturbridge, where he erected a large house. He kept 
a tavern for many years and acquired a large estate. In 1771 he was Captain of 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 87 

the 2nd Troop of Horse in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regiment. 
He was Captain of a Troop in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment which marched 
in response to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving 21 days. In 17^5 a 
regiment of cavalry was ordered to be formed in Worcester County and he was 
made Colonel of it. He did good service under General Lincoln in assisting in 
putting down Shays's rebellion. In 1791 he resigned his commission. He was the 
patron of Leicester Academy and his own sons name was first on the first catalogue. 
Owing to the financial depression following the war he removed to Vermont in 
1791 and was the kader in founding the town of Craftsbury where "he gathered 
around him a number of excellent families from Sturbridge and the nei '.boring 
towns and a little community was formed of which lie was the acknowledged head. 
For twenty years he stood to it in the relation of a patriarch, a friend an 1 councellor, 
whose intelligence all understood, and whose friendship and fidelity ail esteemed. 
His generous hospitality, his energy of character, his calm dignity, and his pure and 
christian life, acting as they did, upon a well educated and sympathetic community, 
exerted an influence and stamped a character upon the people and fortunes of the 
town he planted, which is plainly perceptible to this day." (Historical Sketch of 
Sturbridge.) The following quotation is said to have been taken from a Revolution- 
ary record; "He was a very energetic and athletic man of powerful physique and 
it is stated that when a young man in college he could lift a barrel of cider and 
drink from the bung." He received the degree of Master of Arts from Harvard in 
1786. He died in Craftsbury, Vermont, May 24, 1S10, leaving bequests to the 
church. He was the first of his line to use the final "s" in his name. 

CAPTAIN JOHN CROWL (or CROWLE) was undoubtedly one of the two 
men of that name who served in 1756. They were both residents of Worcester, one 
a corporal in Captain Benjamin Flagg's Company, Colonel Chandler's Regiment, 
and the other in Captain Aaron Rice's Company, Colonel Brown's Regiment on an 
expedition to Crown Point. April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a Company 
of Minute Men in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, said company belonging 
to a "new parish" (later called Ward). March 5, 1779, he was commissioned 
Captain of the 9th Company in Colonel Samuel Denny's 1st Worcester County 
Regiment. 

CAPTAIN ARTHUR DAGGET of Sutton, son of Ebenezer and Hannah 
(Sibley) Dagget, was born January 30, 1729. He was a member of the Committee 
of Inspection in Sutton, in February 1775. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775, he marched from Sutton as Captain of a Company of Minute Men in Colonel 
Learned's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he w r as engaged to serve in the same rank in 



88 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Colonel Learned's regiment in the Provincial Army. He died August 23, 1775, of 
camp fever. 

CAPTAIN JACOB DAVIS of Charlton, son of Edward and Abigail (Learned) 
Davis, was born in Oxford, September 14, 1741. He went to Charlton when a 
young man, where his father had a large tract of land. In 1771 he was Captain of 
the 2nd Charlton Company in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County 
Regiment. He was Captain of a company in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment 
April 19, 1775. February 7, 1776, he was commissioned 2nd Major in Colonel 
Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. January 13, 1778, he was 
commissioned Lieutenant Colonel in the same regiment and September 24, 1779, was 
promoted to the rank of Colonel. In April 17S0, he commanded the regiment on 
an alarm call to Rhode Island. After the war he had a contract for several years 
for carrying the mail on a Worcester County route. He assisted in establishing 
Leicester Academy. In 1786 he removed to Vermont having begun operations as 
early as 1780 on the site of what later became Montpelier. The author of "Samuel 
Davis and His Descendants" states that; "Col. Davis had named the town at the 
time of the grant in 1780. He was prominent in the proprietor's meetings, sun-eyed 
and laid out the lots, went earliest upon the ground and made the first opening in 
the foiests in the centre,taking permanent possession as a settler, built the first house 
on the site of the village, had oversight of the laying out and construction of the 
first highways, directed in the distribution of lots to the settlers and acted as modera- 
tor of the first meeting, which he was the prime mover in calling, and which was 
held in his own house." Hon. D. P. Thompson in his able history says that he was 
4 'emphatically the chief of the founders." "He was of large, tall and compact 
frame, handsome features, and a dignified and noble manner. His great physical 
strength was shown in the fact that he felled and cut into log length an acre a day 
of average forest growth while clearing his lands." Mr. Thompson says; "But Col. 
Davis's physical powers were of small account in comparison with the other traits 
of the man, his enterprise, energy, judgment, and far-reaching sagacity .... 
no needy man ever went empty handed from his door." 

CAPTAIN ANDREW ELLIOT (or ELIOT) of Sutton, son of Joseph and 
Jerusha (Fuller) Eliot was born in that town December 9, 1743. He was Captain 
of a company in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Captain of the 4th Company 
in Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. He served with 
that regiment in September-October, 1777, with "the Northern Army." 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 89 

CAPTAIN JOHN GRANGER (or GRAINGER) of New Braintree was the 
son of Samuel and Martha (Marston) Granger and was born in Andover, May 2.3, 
1734. As a resident of Methuen he was a member of Captain John Fox's Company, 
from June 18 to October 1, 1754. He was in Captain Daniel Bod well's Company, 
Lieut. Colonel John Osgood's Regiment, April 19, 1757. After the death of his 
first wife he removed from Methuen to Boston and finally settled in New Braintree. 
He built the old Granger homestead in that town. He was Captain of a company in 
Colonel Jonathan Warner's Regiment which marched on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775. Seven days later he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's Regiment and on May 23d a resolve was passed granting him a commis- 
sion. A note written on the muster roll of his company in Colonel Warner's Regi- 
ment, reads as follows; "Capt. John Granger was commissioned by Jno. Hancock 
in July 1775 as Captain in the 4th Regt commanded by Col. Learned. No rolls 
of his company is found." The severity of the life in camp around Boston proved 
to be too much for him and his health succumbed. He died January 21, 17S3. 

CAPTAIN JOEL GREEN of Spencer, was engaged to serve in that rank in 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment in the Provincial Army, April 24, 1775, and 
served through the year. From January 1, 1777, to May 9, 1778, he was First 
Lieutenant in Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. May 
2S, 1778 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Ezra Wood's 3d Worcester County 
Regiment and served until his discharge January 31, 1779. 

CAPTAIN JAMES GREENWOOD of Sutton is given in "Greenwood Colon- 
ial and Revolutionary Service," as of the 4th generation (Daniel, John, Thomas) 
was born October 2, 1730. He was Clerk of Captain John Learned's Company, on 
the Crown Point Expedition in 1755, entering service September 24 and serving 
five weeks. He was Captain of a company in Colonel Ebenezer Learnd's Regiment 
on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. He was one of the Committee of Twelve 
of Sutton and in March, 1776, was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, 
Inspection and Safety of that town. He served on similar committees in 1779 and 
in October, 1779, was a member of the Committee on the Constitution. As "Elder" 
Greenwood he was chosen December 4, 1786, on a committee to treat with the insurg- 
»rls of Shays's rebellion. He died in Sutton January 18, 1809, the Sutton Vital 
Records stating that he was the son of James, and Betsey Greenwood while the 
''History of Sutton" and "Greenwood Coloniel and Revolutionary Services" state 
that he was the son of Daniel. The gravestone inscription gives his age as 78. 

CAPTAIN PETER HARWOOD of Brookfield. Several men of this name 
served in the French war but we are unable to state positively that any of these 



90 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

records apply to this particular man. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Jona- 
than Barns's Company of Minute Men in Colonel Jonathan Warner's Regiment on 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Captain 
in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regimnt, probably serving through the year. During 
1776, he was Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment, Continental 
Army. January 9, 1777, he was appointed Brigade Major of General John Nixon's 
Brigade, and September 29, 1778, became Major of Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He served until October 16, 1780 when he 
resigned. 

CAPTAIN NATHANIEL HEALEY (or HEALY) of Dudley, son of Joshua 
and Sarah Healy, was born in Dudley, September 3, 1736. In August, 1757, he 
marched from Dudley to Suhield as a private in Captain Joshua Healy's Company, 
Colonel John Chandler's Regiment on the Fort William Henry alarm. Later he 
was Captain in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Militia Regiment. 
April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment 
and served through the year. He was commissioned Captain in Colonel Jonathan 
Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment, April 4, 1776. January 13, 1778, he 
was commissioned 2nd Major of the same regiment and May 24, 1779, was chosen 
First Major. In 1776 he was chosen a member of the Committee of Correspondence 
and Safety and was Selectman of Dudley in 1777, '8, '9, and 1781, '2 and '3. He 
died in Dudley, October 5, 1817, aged 81 years, 1 month and 2 days. 

CAPTAIN ADAM MARTIN, of Sturbridge, son of Aaron and Sarah Martin, 
was born in Sturbridge, August 27, 1739. He was a private in Captain Andrew 
Dalrymple's Company from March 20 to December 17, 1756, in an expedition 
to Crown Point. In the following year he was a private in Ensign George Wat- 
kins's Company, Colonel John Chandler Jr's. Regiment on a Fort William alarm. 
He served in 1758 from April 1 to May 24, as a private in Captain Henry Spring's 
Company, Colonel William Williams's Regiment. May 30, 1759, at the age of 
twenty, he enlisted again in Colonel John Chandler Jr's Regiment. From May 17,. 
1761 to January 10, 1762, he was a Sergeant in Captain Timothy Hamant's Com- 
pany at Halifax. On the Lexington alarm call, April 19, 1775, he marched as 
First Lieutenant of Captain Timothy Parker's Company of Minute Men in Colonel 
Jonathan Warner's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. From January 1, 1777, to June 28, 1779, 
he was Captain in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. 
He was reported "resigned" on the latter date. July 20, 1779, he was engaged as 
f aptain in Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3d Worcester County Regiment and served to- 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 91 

December 1, 1779. Soon after the Revolution, he removed to Salem, New York, 
where, according to the "Historical Sketch of Sturbridge," "he held the rank of 
Colonel and was highly respected." 

CAPTAIN JOHN PUTNAM of Sutton, son of Edward and Ruth (Fuller) 
Putnam, was born August 25, 1735,. From June 16 to November 26, 1760, he was 
Sergeant in Captain Silvester Richmond's Company. He was Captain of a Company 
of Minute Men in Colonel Ebeneer Learned's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Jonathan 
Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. From a return dated June 22, 1773, 
we learn that he w r as Captain of a company detached from the above regiment to 
serve for 21 days at Providence, Rhode Island. June 20, 1778, he was engaged as 
Captain in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment "to join the army under General 
Sullivan at Providence." In December 1780, he served in Sutton on a committee 
to procure soldiers. He served as Colonel of Militia after the Revolution, and 
died June 13, 1809, aged 73 years, 10 months. 

CAPTAIN JOHN SIBLEY of Sutton, was Captain of a Company in Colonel 
John Chandler Jr's. Regiment, which marched from Sutton in August 1757, to 
assist in the relief of Fort William Henry. He w r as Captain of a company in 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. 
April 26, he was engaged as Captain-Lieutenant in Captain Ezra Badlands Com- 
pany, Colonel Richard Gridley's Artillery Regiment. He died November 27, 1 77S V 
of camp fever, aged about 65. 

CAPTAIN BARTHOLOMEW WOODBURY of Sutton, son of Benjamin and; 
Ruth (Conant) Woodbury, was born November 10, 1740. He was Lieutenant in 
Captain Arthur Dagget's Company, in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, April 
19, 1775. He was Captain of a Company in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, 
which marched from Sutton, Douglas and Northbridge, December 9, 1775, to join 
said regiment and serve until the last of January, 1776. He received his commission 
February 1, 1776. He was commissioned Captain of the 3d Sutton Company, in 
Colonel Jonathan Holman's 3d Worcester County Regiment, April 4, 1776, and 
said company marched to New York July 18, 1776, with ninety-six men. December 
10, 1776, he marched to Providence, Rhode Island, with his company in Colonel 
Holman's Regiment. From August 13, 1777, to November 29, 1777 he was Captain 
in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment. September 7, 1779, he 
was commissioned Second Major in Colonel Jacob Davis's 5th Worcester County 
Regiment. November 29, 1780, he was chosen Muster Master for Worcester County. 
He was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety, in 



92 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

1777 and 17S0. December 4, 17S6, he was appointed on a committee to treat with 
the Court of Common Pleas and with the insurgents in Shays's rebellion. January 
24, 17S7 "Colonel" Woodbury was appointed on a committee to confer with General 
Lincoln. He was Colonel in the Militia after the Revolution. He lived in Sutton 
until 1S10 when he removed to Livermore, Maine. He returned to Sutton shortly 
before his death, which occurred July 7, 1819. 

FIRST LIEUTEXAXT SAMUEL DAGGET of Sutton, was the son of Samuel 
and Lydia (Sibley) Dagget. He was born August 20, 1756. He was the only 
Lieutenant whose name appeared in the roll of Captain John Sibley's Company, 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, which responded to the Lexington alarm call 
of April 19, 1775. Seven days later he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain 
Ezra Badlanvs Company, Colonel Richard Gridley's Artillery Regiment, and served 
through the year. During 1776, he was Second Lieutenant in Colonel Henry Knox's 
Continental Artillery Regiment. We find no record of further service. In the 
History of Sutton it is stated that he "died in the Revolutionary War." 

FIRST LIEUTEXAXT ASA DAXFORTH of Brookfield, was a Sergeant in 
Captain Ithamar Wright's Independent Company, at the time of the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. April 27, 1775, he was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain 
Peter Harwod's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Danforth's Regiment and served 
through the year. During 1776, he was Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d 
Regiment, Continental Army. July 29. 1777, he was commissioned Captain in 
Colonel James Converse's 4th Worcester County Regiment. He died September 3, 
1818. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT REUBEN DAVIS of Charlton, was a corporal in 
Captain Jacob Davis's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment on the 
Lexington alarm April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as First Lieuten- 
ant in Captain William Campbell's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. 
He was Captain in Lieut. Colonel Luke Drury's Detached Regiment, July 12, 1781, 
arrived at West Point, August 1, 1781. He died October 9, 1781. 

. FIRST LIEUTENANT MATTHEW GRAY of Western, (Warren) was 
probably the man of that name who was in the Crown Point Expedition, 1756 and 
served as a private in Captain James Goodwin's Company, Colonel Jolin Chandler's 
Regiment, from August 10 to August 18, 1758, having also marched from Worcester 
to Sheffield on the Fort William Henry alarm in 1757. He was First Lieutenant 
in Captain John Granger's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, April 
28, 1775, and probably served through the year. September 24, 1777, he marched 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT (3 

as Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Cutler's Company of volunteers, to join the U 
under General Gates, serving 52 days in the Northern Department. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN HAZELTON of Sutton, was probably t!. • 
man of that name who saw sen-ice in the French war in 1756, giving at that I 
the name of Silas Hazelton as his father or master. He was engaged April 27, 

1775, as Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Bolster's Company, Colonel Ebenezer L' 
ned's Regiment, and served through the year. May 19, he was appointed a men 

of a committee to look out for soldiers' families and in December of the followin ; 
year, on a committee to treat with the Court of Common Pleas and Insurgents. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN JACOBS of Sutton, was Ensign in the Su 
Company in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regiment in 1771. He 
was First Lieutenant in Captain James Greenwood's Company, Colonel El 
Learned's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm call, April 19, 1775, serving three 
days. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DAVID KEITH of Dudley, held that rank in Captain 
Nathaniel Healey's Company of Minute Men in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regi- 
ment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He was born about 1744. He was 
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Ellis's Company of 67 men from Dudley and neig 
boring towns, said company engaged in service December 9, 1775, marched to 
Roxbury, joined Colonel Learned's Regiment and served to February 1, 1776. April 
4, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain William Carter's Com- 
pany, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. In Deceml zt 

1776, he was Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Healey's Company in the same regi- 
ment in the Rhode Island service. September 25, 1778, he was commissioned 
Captain in the same regiment. According to the Dudley records, he died June 1 >, 
1779, in his 35th year. The grave-stone inscription states that he was a Revolution- 
ary soldier and that five children had died. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SAMUEL LEARNED of. Ward (Auburn) was prob- 
ably the man of that name who served in Captain Fry's Company, Colonel Timo: y 
Ruggles's Regiment in May 1758 and in an expedition to Crown Point from May 1 
to November 2, 1759. He was First Lieutenant in Captain John Crowl's Compar.y, 
in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 17 7 ; . 
His commission in the same rani: in Captain Samuel Curtis's Company, in the sa.r. 
regiment was ordered by resolve, May 23, 1775. He served through the year. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ABEL MASON of Sturbridge, son of Jonathan Mas >n, 
was born about 1739. His earliest recorded service in the French war was as a 
private in Ensign George Watkins's Company, Colonel John Chandler Jr's. Rcgi- 






94 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ment From April 9, to November 29, 1759, he was a private in Captain Jeduthan 
Baldwin's Company, Brig. General Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. He was a Ser- 
geant in Captain Timothy Parker's Company of Minute Men in Colonel Jonathan 
Warner's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he 
"enlisted" as Lieutenant in Captain Adam Martin's Company, Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's Regiment and served through the year. April 4, 1776, he was commis- 
sioned Captain in Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. 
From December 14, 1776, to January 20, 1777, he served again in the same regiment. 
August 13, 1777, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Wor- 
cester County Regiment. From July 30 to August 8, 1780, he was Captain in 
Colonel Jacob Davis's 5th Worcester County Regiment, and marched to Tiverton, 
Rhode Island. He is referred to in the "Historical Sketch of Sturbridge" as 

follows; "Mr. Mason was one of the strong men of the Revolution 

Those under him always spoke of him in terms of love and high respect .... 
He was extensively engaged as a farmer during life, and always exerted a good 
influence around him. General Brooks, when elevated to the executive chair, 
remembered his old companion in aims, and, unsolicited by any one, sent Capt. 
Mason a commission of justice of the peace. A consistent and decided Christian 

character crowned his other virtues With plain, unassuming and 

agreeable manners, were united firmness, and a sound judgment. Capt. Mason was 
in person tall, of a light complexion, not fleshy, muscular, and well proportioned." 
He died in Sturbridge April 3, 1826, aged 87 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DAVID PROUTY, son of David and Elizabeth 
(Smith) Prouty, was born in Spencer, November 27, 1739. March 30, 1759 he 
enlisted in Colonel John Chandler Jr's. Regiment, having served in an expedition 
in 1758. May 1, 1775, he was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain Joel Green's 
Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. From April 11 to November 1, 
1776, he served as First Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Caril's (Carriers) Com- 
pany, in Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. July 27, 1777, 
he marched as Captain in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, 
to re-inforce the Northern Army. He marched again to re-inforce the Northern 
Army, September 27, 1777, as Captain in Major Asa Baldwin's Division, of Colonel 
Samuel Denny's 1st Worcester County Regiment, receiving his discharge October 
18, 1777. Later he served as Major in the Militia and for many years was select- 
man and assessor of Spencer. He died August 25, 1814, aged 75 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT BARNABAS SEARS of Hardwick, son of Robert and 
Mary (Freeman) Sears, was born in that town November 20, 1743. He was a 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 95 

farmer and lived on a part of the old homestead. He taught school in 1772. April 
24, 1775, he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Billings's Company, 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, and served as late as August 1st and probably 
through the year. May 31, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel James 
Converse's 4th Worcester County Regiment. His name also appears in a list of 
officers in Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. June 26, 
1776, he was commissioned Major of Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester 
County Regiment for service in New York and at Quebec. August 12, 17S1, he 
marched as Lieut. Colonel in command of a regiment and served until his discharge, 
November 15, 1781. He served as a member of the Committee of Correspondence 
in 1777, and was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1779-80. Accord- 
ing to "Sears Genealogy" he removed to Greenwich in 1777. He was concerned in 
.Shays's Rebellion but was pardoned and took the oath of allegiance in 17S7. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SALEM TOWNE (or TOWN) of Charlton, was 
the son of Jacob and Mary (Campbell) Towne. He was born at Oxford, October 
21, 1746. He was Quartermaster in Captain Ebenezer Crafts's 2nd Troop of Horse 
in Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regiment, in 1771. He responded 
to the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, holding the same rank under the same 
-captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he was engaged 
-as Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Healey's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 
.Regiment, and served through the year. From September 26 to October 26, 1777, he 
was Quartermaster in Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment, 
which marched to re-inforce the Northern Army. July 29, 1780, he marched to 
Tiverton, Rhode Island as a member of Colonel Jacob Davis's 5th Worcester County 
Regiment and served as Brigade Major. In the "Descendants of William Towne" 

it is stated that he was "a prominent man in his day He 

was a major-general of militia, a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1780, 
■a representative of his town, and was always guiding and upholding the interests 
of his town and State." 

FIRST LIEUT. WILLIAM TUCKER, of Charlton, son of Jonathan and 
Martha (Jackson) Tucker, wasborn in Charlon. Oct. 19, 1734. From April 6 to 
November 29, 1759, he was Corporal in Captain Jonathan Fletcher's Company, 
Colonel John Chandler Jr's. Regiment for the invasion of Canada. Later he served 
.as Ensign in Captain Gardner Wilder's 3d Lancaster Company, Colonel Joseph 
Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. He was Lieutenant in Captain Jacob 
Davis's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Jonathan 



96 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. His name appears as Captain in a list 
of officers of Colonel Jonathan Holman's Regiment, drafted to join Colonel Josiah 
Whitney's and Colonel Nathan Sparhawk's Regiments, (year not given) From 
July 1, 1778, to January 1, 1779, he was Captain in Colonel Jacob Gerri^h's Regi- 
ment. He died in Charlton, January 15, 1S15, aged SO years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONATHAN WOODBURY of Sutton, son of Ben- 
jamin and Ruth (Conant) Woodbury, was born November 10, 1740, N. S. He was 
twin brother of Captain Bartholomew Woodbury, also of this regiment. He was 
Lieutenant in Captain John Putnam's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regi- 
ment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. April 4, 1776, his commission as 
First Lieutenant in Captain John Putnam's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 
5th Worcester County Regiment, was ordered in Council. He was Lieutenant in 
Captain Bartholomew Woodbury's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Wor- 
cester County Regiment, which marched from Sutton to Providence, Rhode Island,. 
on the alarm of December 10, 1776. August 13, 1777, he was engaged as Lieutenant 
in Captain Bartholomew Woodbury's Company, Colonel Job Cushing's Regiment, 
and served in the Northern Department to November 29, 1777. From July 50 to- 
August 8, 1780, he was Captain in Colonel Jacob Davis's 5th Worcester County 
Regiment, marching on an alarm to Rhode Island. He was a delegate to the State 
Convention December 10, 1787. He died March 2, 1828. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ABIJAH BURBANK of Sutton, son of Caleb and 
Peggy (Wheeler) Burbank, was born March 26, 1736. He was Lieutenant in 
Captain James Greenwood's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, on 
the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Captain 
of the 13th Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. 
He served in this regiment under Colonel Holman and his successor Colonel Jacob 
Davis, through the war, marching in response to Rhode Island alarms in December,. 
1776, and August 1780. He also received another commission as Captain in this 
regiment, September 25, 1778. He owned a paper mill in Sutton during the Revolu- 
tion. He died September 23, 1813, aged 77. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT MARCH CHASE of Sutton, son of Samuel and 
Mary (Dudley) Chase, was born June 21, 1738. From May 2 to May 21, 1758, he 
was a private in Captain John Fry's Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regi- 
ment. As shown by an order dated May 30, 1758, he was at that time a member 
of Captain Philip Richardson's Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. 
April 4, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Abraham Batchel- 
der's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. In 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 97 

December of that year he marched in that company and regiment on an alarm to 
Rhode Island. He is also given as Captain of the 10th Company, in the 5th Worces- 
ter County Regiment (year not given). He also served in Colonel Jonathan H oi- 
lman's Regiment in the Northern Army from September 26 to October 26, 1777; 
and in Colonel Nathan Sparhawk's 7th Worcester County Regiment from September 
12 to December 12, 1778. He served on Revolutionary committees of the town of 
Sutton in 1777, 1780 and 1782, being referred to as Captain on the last two dates. 
He died September 26, 1822, aged 84 years. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT .ANDREW CROWLE of Ward (Auburn) was 
evidently the man of that name who enlisted "for the expedition"' in Captain John 
Fry's Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, April 7, 1758, and whose 
name appears on an order signed May 29, of that year. He was Second Lieutenant 
in Captain John Crowle's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, on the 
Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, and served twelve days. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT THOMAS FISH of Oxford, was the son of Eben- 
ezer and Katherine (Baker) Fish of Woburn. His mother was a sister of the wife 
of Colonel Ebenezer Learned. He was a private in Captain Aaron Willard's Com- 
pany from March 7, to December 7, 1760. When the grant of land was made to 
soldiers of the French war he went as surveyor to what later became the town of 
Livermore and was there from 17 73 to 1775. A journal which he kept while there 
has been printed in the "History of Oxford," pages 500-4. April 24, 1775, he was 
engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain William Campbell's Company, Colonel 
Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. May 23 he was commissioned Ensign in the same 
company and regiment. During 1776, he was First Lieutenant in Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's 3d Regiment, Continental Army. From January 1, 1777, to July 1, 1777, 
he was Captain in Colonel William Shepard's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. 
He was reported as having resigned on the last named date. July 19, 1777, he was 
engaged as Captain in Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3d Worcester County Regiment, 
receiving his commission, August 8, 1779. He was to serve until January- 1, 1780. 
His resignation in 1779, called forth the following testimonial: "To whom it may 
concern, This may certify that Captain Thomas Fish has served in the Continental 
Army of the United States of America, four years and two months, and has sustained 
an unspotted character as an officer and soldier, both in action in the field and in 
quarters, and has universally had the good will of officers both in Regiment and 
Brigade to which he belongs, and resigned June 17, 1779, by his own desire. 
(Signed) Jno Glover, Brig. Gen., William Shepard, Col., E. Sprout, Lt. Col." etc. 



■■'■'/ 



38 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Dated Providence, July 6, 1779. In the "History of Livermore" he is called 
""Major." He died from exposure in the snow, in January, 1782. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ASA WATERS, of Sutton, was a member of the 
•Committee of Inspection in February, 1775. He served as Lieutenant in Captain 
Andrew Elliot's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Leamed's Regiment, on the Lexington 
-alarm, April 19, 1775. December 6, 1775, he was Lieutenant in Captain Bartholo- 
_mew Woodbury's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Leamed's Regiment, serving to Febru- 
-ary 1, 1776, on which date he received his commission. April 4, 1776, he was com- 
jnissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Abijah Burbank's 13th Company, Colonel 
Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN WOODBURY of Sutton, son of Joseph and 
"Elizabeth (Fuller) Woodbury, was born September 26, 1749. He was Lieutenant 
in Captain John Putnam's Sutton Company, Colonel Ebenezer Leamed's Regiment, 
-on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. September 26, 1777, he marched as 
Second Lieutenant in Captain March Chase's Company, Colonel Jonathan Hol- 
jnan's 5th Worcester County Regiment, from Sutton to Saratoga to re-inforce the 
Northern Army. He was appointed Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Allton's Com- 
pany, Colonel John Rand's 8th Worcester County Regiment June 29, 17S0 and 
served to October 14th following. December 4, 1786, he was appointed on a 
-committee to treat with the insurgents in Shays's rebellion. He was appointed April 
-3, 1790, agent "to collect the powder that the Selectmen lent some years ago that did 
belong to the Town stock." In the "History of Sutton" it is stated that he was 
•Captain in the Militia and served in the war of 1812. He died December 12, 1831, 
-aged 82. 

CORNET JONATHAN DAY of Dudley, held that rank in Captain Ebenezer 
Crafts's 2nd Troop of Horse, Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regi- 
jnent, according to a list dated 1771. He was commissioned April, 1774. He was 
-Cornet of the same Captain's troop in Colonel Ebenezer Leamed's Regiment on the 
Xexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He was Surveyor of Highways and School Com- 
xnitteeman in Dudley in 1775, serving in the latter capacity also in 1778 and 1781. 
He was Selectman in 1779, '80, '82, and '83. He was a member of the Committee 
■of Correspondence in 1776 and 1781. He died May 10, 1819, aged 74 years. 

ENSIGN BENJAMIN FELTON of Sturbridge, was bom in Danvers, March 
-4, 1740, the son of Joseph Felton. He removed with his father to Rutland, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1755, and September 20, 1756, became a private in Captain Samuel 
"How's Company, serving until November 2nd following. Later he served as a 
private in Captain John Phelps's Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment, and March 



t COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 99 

31, 1759, at the age of 20 enlisted in Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. He 
marched in an expedition to Crown Point and from May 8 to December 2, 1761, was 
Sergeant in Captain Thomas Cowden's Company. In the "Historical Sketch of 
Sturbridge" it is stated that his first service in the French and Indian War was in 
.assisting in driving a herd of cattle over the Green Mountains from Massachusetts to 
Lake Champlain. He resided for a short time in Brookfield and in 1772 removed 
to Sturbridge, in which town he lived during the period of the Revolution. In 
response to the Lexington alarm call of April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant in 
Captain Timothy Perkins's Company, Colonel Jonathan Warner's Regiment. April 
24, 1775, he was engaged as Ensign in Captain Adam Martin's Company, Colonel 
Ebcnezer Learned's Regiment, and served through the year. During 1776, he was 
Second Lieutenant in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment Continental Army. 
June 27, 1777, he was appointed Adjutant of Colonel Danforth Keyes's Regiment, 
raised for the defense of Boston. In the "Historical Register of the Continental 
Army" it is stated that he was Captain in the Massachusetts Militia after his service 
in the Continental Army. According to the "Historical Sketch of Sturbridge" he 
held this commission as commander of the first company of cavalry in Worcester 
County. He commanded this company in the service of the State during Shays's 
rebellion. He removed from Sturbridge to Brookfield where he resided until his 
death June 26, 1820, at the age of 81 years. 

ENSIGN TIMOTHY FOSTER of Dudley, probably saw service in the French 
war as several records of service are credited to one or more soldiers of that name. 
It is evident, however, that these records belong to at least two different men and 
just which if any belong to him we are unable to state. April 19, 1775, he marched 
as Sergeant in Captain Nathaniel Healey's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 
Regiment. Five days later he was engaged as Ensign under the same officers and 
served through the year. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in 
Captain William Carter's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester 
County Regiment. In December, 1776, he was Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel 
Healey's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's Regiment, on a Rhode Island alarm. 
September 26, 1777, he marched in the same regiment to re-inforce the Northern 
Army. He was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain David Keith's Com- 
pany in the same regiment, September 25, 1778. In February, 1780, he was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Corben's Company, Colonel Jacob 
Davis's 5th Worcester County Regiment. He may have been and probably was the 
"Timothy Foster, Revolutionary soldier" who died in Dudley, February 3, 1822, 
aged according to the grave-stone, 80 years. 



100 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ENSIGN STEPHEN GORHAM of Hardwick. Taige, in his "History of 
Hardwick" states that he was probably of the Barnstable family. According to an 
order dated May 50, 175S, he was in Captain Samuel Robinson's Company, Colonel 
Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, he marched 
as Sergeant in Captain Simeon Hazeltine's Company of Minute Men, in Colonel 
Jonathan Warner's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Ensign in Captain 
Samuel Billing's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. January 1, 

1777, he was commissioned Lieutenant in Colonel Ichabod Alden's 7th Regii 
Massachusetts Line, and served until December 5 of that year, when according to 
the "Historical Register, Continental Army," he resigned. From September 17 to 
December 12, 1778, he was Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Nye's Company, Col- 
onel Nathan Sparhawk's 7th Worcester County Regiment. 

ENSIGN ELIAS HALL of New Braintree, was a private in Captain John 
Granger's Company, Colonel Jonathan Warner's Regiment. April 26, 1775, he 
was engaged as Ensign in Captain John Granger's Company, Colonel Ebenezer 
Learned's Regiment, serving through the year. In a descriptive list dated May, 

1778, he arrived June 7, 1778, at Fishkill, holding the rank of Ensign in Captain 
Francis Stone's Company, Colonel James Converse's Regiment; age, 34 (also given 
24) ; stature 5 feet, 5 in. ; complexion, light. 

ENSIGN JOHN HAYWARD (or HAYWOOD) was a private in Captain 
John Fry's Company, Colonel Williams's Regiment, on an expedition to Crown 
Point, February 17, 1756. He was an Ensign in Captain Arthur Daggers Company, 
Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, according to a list dated May 23, 1775. The 
"Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental Army," states that he was 
subsequently a Captain in the Massachusetts Militia and that he died February 
13, 1825. The writer has been unable to verify either of the last two statements. 
• ENSIGN SAMUEL FIEALY of Dudley, son of Captain Joshua and Sarah 
Healy, was born December 9, 1738. He was a private in his father's company, 
Colonel John Chandler Jr.'s Regiment, which marched from Dudley to Stockbridge, 
August 10, 1757, in the expedition for the relief of Fort William Henry. He was 
a Constable in Dudley in 1774. He was Ensign in Captain Nathaniel Healy's 
Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 
1775, serving 15 dys. April 4, 1776, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in 
Captain Nathaniel Healey's Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester 
County Regiment. January 3, 1778, he was appointed Lieutenant in Lieutenant 
Benjamin Alton's detachment from Captain Henry Clark's Company, Colonel Eben- 
ezer Sprout's 4th Plymouth County Regiment, for service at North Kingston, Rhode 



COLONEL EBENEZER LEARNED'S REGIMENT 101 

I !and, and discharged February 21, 177S. From September 10, 1779, to November 
|7 1779, he was Captain in Colonel John Jacobs's Light Infantry Regiment. He 
was at one time Captain of the 14th Company, in the 5th Worcester County Regi- 
ment (year not given). He died November 24, 1817, in his 79th year. 

ENSIGN JOHN HOWLAND of Spencer, son of John and Abigail (or Eliza- 
U-th) (Pierce) Howland, was born in Middleborough (Free town;. He removed 
to Spencer about 1770, where he became a highly respected citizen. He was Ser- 
geant in Captain John Woolcott's Company of Rangers, which marched April 19, 
17 75, from Brookrleld and Spencer. June 6, 1775, he u enl sted" as Ensign in 
Captain Isaac Bolster's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment and served 
through the year. It is stated in "The Howlands in America," that he was called 
'Captain" John. 

ENSIGN BENJAMIN POLLARD of Brookneld, was a private in Captain 
1'hamar Wright's Company of Minute Men, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 

1775. April 27, 1775, he enlisted into the Provincial Army. May 23, 1775, a 
resolve was passed in Congress, that a commission be issued to him as Ensign in 
Captain Peter Harwood's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. During 

1776, he was Second Lieutenant in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Contin^ 
cntal Army. January 1, 1777, he became First Lieutenant in Colonel Edward 
Wigglesworth's 13th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He resigned February 6, 1773. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM POLLY, of Charlton, served as Sergeant in Captain 
Samuel Curtis's South Company of Minute Men in Charlton, on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. Seven days later he was engaged to serve as Ensign under 
the same Captain in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's Regiment. April 4, 1776, he was 
commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain John "Nickall's" Company, Colonel 
Jonathan Holman's 5th Worcester County Regiment. December 10, 1775, he 
marched to Providence, Rhode Island, on an alarm as Lieutenant in Captain Abijah 
Lamb's Company in the last named regiment. 

ENSIGN REUBEN SLAYTON of Brookneld, son of Thomas and Abiel Slay- 
ton, was born May 30, 1748. He served as Sergeant in Captain John "Woolcoot's" 
Company of Rangers, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. April 25, 1775, he 
"was engaged as Ensign in Captain Joel Green's Company, Colonel Ebene?er 
Learned's Regiment, and probably served through the year. During 1776, he was 
Second Lieutenant in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 3d Regiment, Continental Army. 
January 1, 1777, he became Captain in Colonel William Shepard's 4th Regimes, 
^Massachusetts Line. He was reported "resigned" April 1, 1779. 



\ 



THE WINSLOW HOUSE 



No account of Plymouth houses would be complete without a descrip- 
tion of the one built by Edward Winslow and known as the Winslow 
house. It is one of the show houses of the town and Plymouth people 
are justly proud of it. It is on the north side of North street towards the 
ocean, and, from its photograph, can be seen to be a substantial structure 
of the pre-Revolutionary type. 

North street was laid out by the early settlers before the year 1633,, 
and in the deeds was referred to as New street, Queen street, Howland 
street and North street. The name Howland was given to the street be- 
cause of the large number of members of that family who owned land 
there, indeed, the land upon which the Winslow house stands was one of 
the early Howland holdings. The first of the family was John Howland 
who came in the Mayflower with Governor Carver's family. His son* 
Joseph Howland, married Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Thomas South- 
worth of Plymouth and is the first known owner of the land upon which 
the Winslow house stands. It was long a tradition in the Colony that the 
Southworths were descended from the English nobility and modern in- 
vestigation has shown this to be a fact. Joseph Howland was a Select- 
man, a Captain in the Colony's forces, a member of the Council of War 
during King Philip's war, a Deputy in the Legislature, and a very large 
landowner in the town. At his death, his son (Captain Thomas How- 
land) inherited the Winslow House land. He was a Selectman and one 
of the large landowners of Plymouth. In the early days the town inn- 
keeper held a position of prominence and respectability. Thomas How- 
tand married Joanna, daughter of James Cole (who kept a famous inn) 



THE WINSLOW HOUSE 105 

and their son, Consider, inherited his grandfather Cole's business. Even 
as in the early days travellers in Plymouth spoke of James Cole's, so 
during Consider Howland's life his inn was a center of activity and town 
life. In 1741 Edward Winslow married Hannah, daughter of Captain 
Thomas Howland, and in 1754 ne bought from his brother-in-law, Con- 
sider, the land upon which he, the next year, built his house. 

Edward Winslow was a member of a family which from the earliest 
time was distinguished in Plymouth society and history. He was a 
younger brother of General John Winslow, mentioned in connection wit- 
the Warren house, a description of which was published in the April 
number of this magazine, and was fourth in descent from Edward Win- 
slow who came in the Mayflower in 1620. Edward, first of the family, 
perfomed valuable service for the Colony. He was an educated gentle- 
man and owned a large estate "Careswell" next to that of his friend Will- 
liam Thomas at Marshfield. He was for many years agent of the colo- 
nists at the King's Court, Governor of Plymouth Colony, and died while 
serving under Cromwell as 1st Commissioner of the Commonwealth^ 
superintending a military expedition against the Spanish West Indies. 
He was the author of several valuable works. His son Josiah inherited 
the family estates as well as his father's ability. He became Deputy to 
the General Court, Assistant Governor, Commissioner of the United 
Colonies, and in 1659 succeeded Myles Standish as Commander of the 
Militia of the Colony with the rank of Major. During King Philip's 
war, he was Governor of Plymouth Colony and was made General in 
chief of all the troops of the United Colonies. His son Isaac continued 
to live at Marshfield where he maintained the standard of his father and 
grandfather. He became Chief Justice of the Court of Common Please 
Judge of Probate, a member and President of the Council, and Chief 
Commander of the military forces of the County. 

The wife of Isaac Winslow was Sarah Wensley, daughter of Captain 
John Wensley of Boston and Elizabeth Paddy his wife. The Wensleys 
Had long been friends of the Winslows. n the will of Isaac Winslow's 
uncle (John Winslow) John /Vensley is mentioned as a "loving friend. ,r 
The portrait of Elizabeth Paddy is with the Winslow portraits in Pilgrim 
Hall. Her father, Deacon William Paddy, was one of the most prom- 



104 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

inent of the early, merchants of Plymouth and Boston. While in Ply- 
mouth he volunteered for the Pequot war, became a representative to the 
General Court, member of the Plymouth Council of war during the Xar- 
ragansett troubles, and Treasurer of the Colony. lie married Alice, 
daughter of Assistant Governor Edmund Freeman of Sandwich. Another 
daughter of John Wensley, Mercy, married Joseph Bridgham of Boston 
and was the mother of Mercy Bridgham, wife of William Thomas, owner 
of the old Thomas house described herein. 

Edward Winslow, son of Isaac Winslow and Sarah Wenslev, erradu- 
a edfrom Harvard in 1736. He soon settled in Plymouth where he mar- 
ried; Hannah, widow of Charles Dyer and daughter of Captain Thomas 
Rowland as previously mentioned. It is said that when he built the old 
house the frame and carvings were brougt from England. lie held many 
offices in Plymouth, among them Clerk of the Courts. Register of Pro 
bate and Collector of the Port. His house became a center of hospitality. 
He was lavish in his entertainments and crenerous to the poor. During 
the troubles antedating the Revolution, he was a strong loyalist and was 
therefore deprived of his offices. Though his son Edward had joined the 
British army, he remained quietly in Plymouth until in 1781 he went to 
New York where General Sir Henry Clinton allowed him a pension. In 
1783 he went to Halifax where he died the next year. Xone of his male 
descendants have ever since lived in Plymouth. The house, which is 
popularly supposed to have been confiscated, was really taken on execu- 
tion by his creditors, who sold it to Thomas Jackson. From him it 
passed in 1S13 under execution to his cousin Charles Jackson. In this 
house Charles Jackson's daughter Lydia was married in 1835 to Ralph 
Waldo Emerson. Many distinguished people have lived in the house at 
various times. In 1872 the Jackson heirs sold the house to the wife of 
the Reverend George W. Briggs, who occupied it for many years. 
When a few years ago the house was sold to Mr. Willoughby he changed 
its appearance to some extent, but still with a purpose of preserving its 
old character. The picture, taken by A. S. Burbank of Plymouth, 
shows the house before these changes. 



MMKmc*^.. 



*» ■ " ■ ~ - 







-■* — : -— -~ — - ■ —■ 



jpprlmsttt of th|^mftiranS£Dolutioii 



Frank A-Gar_dner.M. I>. Editor. 



Birthplace of Gen. John Glover — concluded 

The lot which Michael Shepard sold to 
Jonathan Webb. January 3, 1826, which 
iucluded a large portion of the lot owned 
by Jonathan 3 Glover, has been changed 
somewhat in size since 1826, by the sale of 
14 feet from the rear of the lot by the 
owner, Michael Shepard, to the Second 
Baptist Society, March 12, 1844, and the 
transfer at the same time of a wedge shaped 
piece of land on the northern side from the 
church property to Michael Shepard. This 
small strip of land measured 16 inches on 
St. Peter street, and ran to a point at the 
eastern bound. The various transfers of 
this property from 1826, when it was ac- 
quired as above stated by Michael Webb, 
to the present time, may be found recorded 
in the Essex County Registry of Deeds 
Records, books and leaves as follows : 342- 
34 and 48; 351-155; 450-164; 484-23; 491- 
146; 605-219; 1336-322; and 1339-133, 
dated April 16, 1892, when the Central 
Baptist Church conveyed to Leroy B. 
Philbrick, this property which they had 
purchased of Captain Charles Baker, March 
15, 1892. 

Many of the above named owners of this 
property during the past two hundred 
years have been men of prominence and it 
seems in order, to give brief biographical 
sketches of the leading men among them. 

GENERAL JOHN GLOVER may cer- 
tainly r (Called one of the ablest and best 
know? en furnished by Massachusetts in 
the A Hcan Revolution. As a full ac- 
count his military record and achieve- 
ments nas been given in the Massachusetts 
Magazine, v. I, it will not be repeated here. 



COLONEL JONATHAN GLOVER, 
brother of General John, had an excellent 
record in the same war. He was chosen 
by ballot in the House of Representatives 
February 7, 1776, Colonel of the FifthJEs- 
sex County Militia Regiment, and served 
until February, 1779, when he resigned on 
account of ill health. 

GAMALIEL HODGES, son of Gamaliel 
and Sarah (Williams) Hodges, was born 
October 13, 1716, in Salem, and died, Sa- 
lem, August 27, 1768. He married Priscilla 
Webb, daughter of Jonathan and Priscilla 
(Bray) Webb. 

BARTHOLOMEW PUTNAM, son of 
Bartholomew and Ruth (Gardner) Putnam, 
was born in Salem, February 2, 1737-8. 
and died in Salem, April 17, 1815. He 
was surveyor of the port of Salem. His 
wife, Sarah (Hodges), was the daughter of 
Gamaliel and Priscilla (Webb) Hodges. 
She died in Salem, October 17, 1830. 

SAMUEL WARD, son of Miles and 
Hannah (Derby) Ward, was born in Salem 
April 30, 1740. He married in Salem, Jan- 
uary 2, 1768, Priscilla Hodges, daughter of 
the above named Gamaliel and Priscilla 
(Webb) Hodges. He was for several years 
naval officer of Salem. He died in Salem 
July 31, 1812. 

GAMALIEL HODGES WARD, son of 
the above Samuel and Priscilla (Hodges) 
Ward, was born in Salem, January 24, 
1782, and married in Salem, August 16, 
1808, Priscilla Lambert Townsend, daugh- 
ter of Moses and Lydia (Lambert) Town- 
send. They were the grandparents of Gen- 
eral Frederick Townsend Ward, Mandarin 



10G 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



of the Empire, Admiral of the Chinese 
Navy, and General of the Chinese Army. 
Gamaliel H. Ward died in Salem, March 6, 
1836. 

MOSES TOWNSEND, owner of the 
property from 1811 to 1825, was the son of 
Moses and Hannah (Lambert) Townsend. 
He was born May 17, 1760, and married 
April 7, 1783, Lydia Lambert, daughter of 
Joseph and Mary (Foot) Lambert. He 
was a master mariner and president of the 
Union Marine Insurance Company. May 
14, 1775, he enlisted as a corporal in Cap- 
tain Addison's Company, Colonel John 
Mansfield's 19th Regiment, and served 
through the year. In 1776, he was a ser- 
geant in Captain Richardson's Company, 
Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, 
Continental Army, and was taken prisoner 
at Fort Washington, November 16, 1776. 
He was taken to England and confined in 
Mill Prison. He was admitted a member 
of Essex Lodge, F. A. M., August 7, 1798. 
Jlje died in Salem, February 14, 1842. 

MICHAEL SHEPARD, son of Jeremiah 
and Elizabeth (Webb) Shepard, was born 
in Salem September 4, 1786. He married 
in Salem, August 14, 1811, Matilda Fairfax, 
daughter of Francis and Martha (Mans- 
field) Clarke. She was born in Salem, 
April 7, 1788. He was a member of the 
First Baptist Church in Salem for about 
43 years and prominently identified with 
all its interests. He bequeathed the sum 
of $2,500 to each of the two Baptist 
churches in Salem, to be used for the sup- 
port of the music. 

CHIEF ENGINEER CHARLES HEN- 
RY BAKER was born inJSalem, Jan- 
uary 16, 183 1. He was appointed Third 
Assistant Engineer, August 2, 1855, on 
p flag-ship "San Jacinto", East India 
uadron, 1855-8, engaged in the capture 
.Barnes Forts, near Canton, China, 1856, 
_id Assistant Engineer, July 21, 1858, on 



the "M. W. Chapin", in the Brazil Squad- 
ron and the Paraguay Expedition in 175S- 
9. lie was promoted 1st Assistant 1 
neer, August 2, 1S59, and served on the 
Steamer "Mystic" in the African Squad- 
ron, 1859-61. Special duty at Boston 
Navy Yard, 1S61. Chief Engineer, Octo- 
ber 29, 1861. On the steam sloop' 'Wa- 
chusett," 1862. He was at the siege of 
Yorktown and on the York and James 
Rivers in 1862. He was captured by the 
Confederates while assisting medical relief 
at City Point, Virginia, May 29, 1S62. and 
was held prisoner at Salisbury, X. C, and 
Richmond, Va., for three months. In 1862-3 
he was a member of the Examining B' »ard 
and from 1863 to 7, did special duty in the 
construction of machinery at the Boston 
Navy Yard. He was fleet-engineer of the 
South Atlantic (Brazil) Squadron, on the 
flag-ship " Guemere " 1867-9. In 1871-2 he 
did special duty and in 1873-7 was at the 
Naval Academy. His later services were 
as follows: fleet engineer, Asiatic Station, 
1877-81 ; charge of stores, Navy Yard, Bos- 
ton, 1881-4; Navy Yard, Washington, 
1884-7; and on the "Lancaster" South 
Atlantic Station, 1S87-9. He was placed 
on the retired list, January 16, 1893, and 
died May 6, 1896. 

LEROY B. PHILBRICK, the present 
owner, was born in Hooksett. N.H., De- 
cember 31, 1847, the son of Almon 0. and 
Susan E. (Wilcomb) Philbrick. He was 
educated in Pembroke, X. H., and moved 
to South Hampton, X. H., when ten years 
of age, and attended Barnard Academy, 
later studying at the Providence Confer- 
ence Seminary at East Greenwich, R. I. 
He next went to Chicago and came to Salem 
in 1867. Like several of the previous own- 
ers of the property, he has been prominently 
identified with the Baptist denomination, 
serving as Sunday school superintendent 
for thirty-six years, and as Vice-Preshier.t 
of the Massachusetts Baptist Sunday Schoo 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



107 



Association for twenty-two years. He has 
been a member of the Baptist Social Union 
for many years. 

State Brigantine Nantes. 

"It is agreed between the Mafter, Sea- 
men, and mariners of the Briga Xantz 
bound for the Kingdom of France that in 
Consideration of the Sums as monthly 
Wages affixed to our names that the said 
Seamen and Mariners will perform a Voy- 
age from Boston to the Kingdom of France 
and back to Boston promifing hereby to 
obey the lawful Orders and Commands of 
the faid Mafter, or of other Officers of the 
Briga Nantz and faithfully to do and per- 
form the Duty of Seamen as required by 
faid Mafter by Night and by Day, on 
board the faid Briga Nantz or in her 
Boats and on no Account or Pretence what- 
ever, to go on Shore without Leave first ob- 
tained from the Mafter or Commander of 
faid Briga Nantz hereby agreeing that 
Forty-eight Hours' abfence without Leave 
fhall be deemed a total Defertion, and in 
Cafe of Difobedience, Neglect, Pillage, Em- 
bezzlement or Desertion, the faid Marines 
do forfeit their Wages, together with all 
their Goods, Chattels, &c, on board faid 
Ship ; hereby for themfelves, Heirs, Ex- 
ecutors or Adminiftrators, renouncing all 
Right and Title to the fame. And the 
Mafter of faid Briga Nantz hereby prom- 
ifes and obliges himfelf, upon the above 
Conditions, to pay the faid monthly Wages 
as fet againft the Names of the Seamen 
and Mariners of the Briga Nantz upon re- 
turn of faid Briga Nantz to the Port of 
Boston on her Arrival at Boston aforesaid 
the Port of her Discharge. 

In Teftimony of our free affent, Confent 
and Ag- ment to the Premifes we have 
hcreunt £t our Hands the Day and Date 
affixed bur Names. 

Wages per month. 
1777 Nov. 2, Jos. Chapman, 



Master 20:00:00 

December 16, William Wil- 
liams, Mate 18 :00 :00 

(Names of crew following.) 

Jan. 17, 1778. 
This bill Settled & Paid before the Vef- 
sell Sailed from Boston." 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH CHAPMAN, so 
far as the records in the Archives show, 
saw his first naval service as Master of the 
State Ship "Versailles." He was engaged 
for that service, December 6, 1776, for a 
voyage to Nantes and return, serving 6 
months and 21 days, until his discharge, 
June 27, 1777. November 2, 1777, he was 
engaged as Master of the brigantine 
"Nantes," employed by the Board of War. 

MATE WILLIAM WILLIAMS had no 
record of naval service previous to his 
being engaged to serve in this rank, De- 
cember 16, 1777, on the brigantine "Nantes." 

In the records of the Board of War, 
under date of January 21, 1778, we read the 
following : 

"Ordered, That Mr. Ivers pay Capt. 
Chapman's Bill of Disbursements for 
Brigt Nants. £4:04:06." 
"Exchange 1,000 livres Tournois. 
Gentlemen : — ■ 

"At Fifteen days sight of this our first & 
only Bill of Exchange, pay to Capt. Joseph 
Chapman or his order one Thousand Livres 
Tournois, Value in Account with the faid 
Captain, & to serve for his Expenses in 
Cafe he fhould be taken on his pafsage to 
France, in the Brigt Nantz, himfelf Master, 
& place the fame to the account of the 
Board of War. 

"THOS. WALKER, Prest. 

"Mefsrs. Morris, Pliane, Penet & Co., 
Merchts, 

Nantz. 

"Received the above Bill of Exchange 
from the Board of War. 

JOSEPH CHAPMAN." 



108 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



"Ordered, that Joseph Chapman be paid 
the Ballance of his account, amounting to 
£59:16:09." 

The above order bore date of August 24, 
1778, and evidently terminated Captain 
Chapman's service with this vessel. Janu- 
ary 9, 1779, he was engaged as "Master' 
(commander) of the ship "Live Oak," to 
sail from Boston to Charleston, thence to 
Nantes and return. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM WILLIAMS, 
who had served as Mate next became Mas- 
ter. 

"Agreed with Capt. William Williams as 
Master of the Brig Nantes, now to be 
loaded for Europe in the Manner follow- 
ing, thirty pounds pr Month Wages, eighty 
pounds as a guaranty in lieu fo primage out 
& home, two shillings & six pence sterling a 
day when in a foreign port, five Tons privi- 
ledge out & one Ton home, to enter pay 
this day." Dated Board of War, Novem- 
ber 23, 1778. 

m "Ordered, That Mr. Ivers pay Capt. Wil- 
liam Williams to pav Labourers on the brig 
Nantes pr his Account, £43 :04 :00." 

The above was dated November 28, 1778, 
Board of War Office. 

"Ordered, That Capt. Hopkins Deliver 
Wm. Williams a 5 Inch Hawser for the 
Brign Nantes." December 1, 1778. 

"Ordered, That Mr. Ivers pay Capt. Wil- 
•liam Williams for the Use of the Brig 
Nantes, £60:00:00. December 8, 1778." 

"A Bill of Disbursement for the Brigan- 
tine Nantz William Williams, Master, 
for myself to 14 Days board from 
the 23 November, to the 18 De- 
cember, to cash paid for the 

Bord £12:00:00 

to cash Paid for the Bord of three 

men 19 days 13:08:00 

to Cash Paid for 41 Days Labour 

at 136 73:16:00 

to Cash Paid at Sundrey times 

, for Potatoes 5:02:00 

lo 63 lb beef at 12s 2- 6 :06 :00 

]o 1 Coffe Pot a 24- 1:04:00 

jo 1 Candle ftick for the Caban at 00 :12 :00 
to 1 Pair marking irons a 8-.... 00:08:00 
v 



December the 9 to 2 lb Coffe at -9 00 :18 00 
to 6 Bushells of Potatoes a -36.. 10:16 00 
to 14 lb Butar a -12 8:08:00 



£134:38:00 
the 28 November Reed of the 

Honourable Bord of War £43:04:00 

the 8th December Rec'd of do... 60:00:00 



£103:04:00 



£31:04:02 
for Clearing out at the Naval 
office 4:13:00 



Ballance Dew £35:17:02 
Boston, Jany 19, 1779. 
Errors Excepted, WM. WILLIAMS." 

"Portledge Bill for the Brigt Nantes, 
William Williams Master, bound on a voy- 
age from Boston to Bilboa and back to 
Boston again. 

Time Mens Quality Wages No. days 

of Entry Names per month to 

1778 * Jan. 17.1779 

Nov. 23 Wm. Williams Master 130 54 

Dec. 7 Samuel Brown Mate LW 24 
(all others were seamen) 
Boston, January 19, 1779." 

"Ordered, That Capt Hopkins deliver 
Capt William Williams for the Brigantine 
Nantz 

1 Quire paper for Log Book. 
1 Cod line. 
6 Cod Hooks. 
12 yards Ozenbugs. 
6 bushels Coals. 

Ordered. That Commifsary Devens de- 
liver Capt Wm Williams for the brig 
Nantz 

1 barrel Pork 

2 c. Bread. Bord of War, Jan. 12, 1779." 
"Ordered That Mr Ivers pay Capt. Wil- 
liams his portledge Bill harbor pay for the 
brig Nantz £469:06:00 
also for the Balance of his dis- 
bursements 35:17:00 



£505 :03 :00 
Jan. 19, 1779." (Board of War.) 

"To the Honourable Board of War. 
Pleafe to Pay Mr Nox the Cusstomerry 
Prife for Poiloting the Brigt Nantz out of 
this harbour. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



109 



On board the Said Brigt this 28th Janry, 
WILLIAM WILLIAMS." 

The following belated bill appears in the 
records of the Board of War: 

"Ordered, That Mr Ivers pay Winter 
Calef for 15 Hogsheads of Water for Brigt 
Nantz Capt Williams a 2-6 £1:17:06 
May 28, 1779." 

No further records of the "Nantes" have 
been found. 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM WILLIAMS 
next became commander of the privateer 
brigantine "Gerrard." Henry Mitchell pre- 
sented a petition, dated March 23, 1779, that 
he be so commissioned and the order was 
passed on that date. May 9, 1780, his com- 
mission was ordered as Captain of the pri- 
vateer ship "Viper," and in a descriptive 
list of the officers and crew of that vessel 
dated September 30, 1780, we read that he 
was 30 years of age, stature 5 ft. 7 in., com- 
plexion dark, residence Boston. No further 
record of service has been found. 



State Ship 

"State of Mafstts Bay. 
To the Honble the Council of the State 
aforesaid : 

The Petition of Nathl Tracey & others of 
Newbury Port Humbly Sheweth That 
your Petitioners have fitted out the Ship 
Vengeance burthened about three hundred 
and fifty Tons mounting twenty Carriage 
Guns and navigated by One hundred and 
twenty men — having on Board as Pro- 
visions One hundred Bbls Beef and Pork 
and ten tons of Bread — as ammunition fif- 
teen hundred lb of Powder and Shot in 
Proportion. Officers on Board are Thomas 
Thomas Commander and John Fletcher 1st 
Lieut. Said Ship is intended to cruise 
against the Enemies of these United States. 

Your Petitioners therefore humbly re- 
quest your honors to Commission Thomas 
Thomas as Commander of said Ship for 
the Purpose mentioned above and as in 
duty bound will ever pray, etc. 

SAML WHITE in behalf of concerned. 

In Council June 30, 1779. 

Read and Ordered that Thomas Thomas 
ot Commifsioned as Commander of the 
Ship ab' |e mentioned — he complying with 



the Re 



r es of Congrefs. 

JOHN AVERY, D. Secy." 



Vengeance. 

"Ship Vengence Portage Bills, Thomas 
Thomas Commander, on an Expedition to 
Penobscot — 1 779. 

Thomas Thomas, Commander, entered 
June 27, 1779. 

Jno. Fletcher, Lieut, entered June 27, 
1779. 

William Dennis, 2nd Lieut., entered June 
27, 1779. 

William Wyer, 3d Lieut., entered June 
27, 1779. 

(John) Beach, Master, entered June 27, 
1779. 

(Samuel) Blanchard, Doctor, entered 
June 27, 1779. 

Elias Davis, Mate, entered June 27, 1779. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS THOMAS was a 
member of the Committee of Safety in 
Newburyport, September 23, 1774. In Oc- 
tober, 1775, he was chosen Captain of one 
of the six heavy artillery- guns in Newbury- 
port. July 4, 1777, he was commissioned 
Captain of a company of artillery in 
Colonel Jonathan Titcomb's 2nd Essex 
County Regiment. His first naval service 
in the Revolution was in the "Vengeance," 
as above cited. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN 
FLETCHER was commissioned Com- 



% 



110 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



mander of the privateer brigantine "Wex- 
ford," January 2, 1778. His next service 
was as second in command on the ship 
"Vengeance," as mentioned above. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM 
DENNIS was in all probability the man 
of that name who was Prize Master in the 
brigantine "Tyrannicide," under Captain 
Jonhta naHaraden from March 2 to May 3, 
1778. He wa sengaged as Second Lieuten- 
ant on the ship "Vengeance," June 27, 1779. 

. THIRD LIEUTENANT WILLIAM 
WYER had no naval record prior to his 
being engaged to serve in this rank on the 
ship "Vengeance," June 27, 1779. 

MASTER JOHN BEACH also saw his 
first naval service on the ship "Vengeance," 
his engagement bearing date of June 27, 
1779. 

DOCTOR SAMUEL BLANCHARD of 
Boston, served first as Surgeon's Mate in 
Colonel Samuel Gerrish's Regiment, his en- 
gagement dating from June 8th of that 
year. He probably served next as Surgeon 
in some vessel, for we find his name in a 
list of prisoners sent from Halifax to Bos- 
ton on the cartel "Swift," November 8, 
1777. June 27, 1779, he was engaged as 
Doctor on the ship "Vengeance." 

DOCTOR'S MATE ELIAS DAVIS was 
engaged to serve on this ship June 27, 1779. 
It is possible that other records of service 
rendered by Elias Davis may have applied 
to him. 

We have no record of any captures made 
by the "Vengeance" in the summer of 1779. 
She sailed with many other vessels in the 
fleet to the Penobscot in August, 1779, and 
was lost in that disastrous expedition. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS THOMAS ap- 

pp'ently saw no further active service in 

I Revolution. Currier, in his "History 

{ Newburyport," states that Hotel Wa- 



verly on Merrimack Street, at the head of 
Mercantile Wharf in Newburyport, was 

formerly his residence. lie also states that 
in May, 1795, he bought Jonathan Jackson's 
house on High Street, when that gentleman 
removed to Boston. Captain Thomas died 
August 1, 1796, and was buried in St. Paul"s 
churchyard. After his death his house on 
High Street was purchased by "Lord" Tim- 
othy Dexter. In a paper presented before 
the Antiquarian and Historical Society of 
Newbury, reference is made to Captain 
Thomas as follows: He "rose from an 
humble position to the rank of one of our 
first merchants, when he affected with suc- 
cess, the style and port of an accomplished 
gentleman of the old school. He was dis- 
tinguished for his boldness and enterprise- 
Danger and excitement had a charm for 
him. He liked the license of the revolu- 
tionary period, and he possessed in large 
measure the qualities which made the 
leader in critical times. He would rather 
make a dollar in privateering than twice 
that sum in the dull ways of peaceful com- 
merce. He was the man who responded 
so promptly to the call of the state, in 
behalf of the Newburyport Artillery' Com- 
pany in 1778, to go to Rhode Island with 
the reply, "we accept with cheerfulness 
your invitation, and will report for duty 
immediately." Take him all in all, he was 
one of the most interesting figures in this 
town (Newbury) during the revolutionary 
war. His character had something of that 
quality which touches the imagination, and 
lifts a man beyond the level of the com- 
monplace. He was not a model, nor so 
well organized as Parsons, or Hodge, not 
so exceptionable a citizen, but was built on 
a larger scale and surpassed them in bold- 
ness and power of command." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN FLET- 
CHER apparently saw no further service 
in the Revolution. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



HI 



SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM 
DENNIS was probably the man of that 
name who was Sailing Master of the ship 
1781, and was commissioned Captain of 
"Rover," under Captain John Barr, in May, 
the privateer brigantine "Recovery," De- 
cember 7, 1782. 

THIRD LIEUTENANT WILLIAM 
WYER had no further record of service. 



MASTER JOHN BEACH was com- 
missioned Captain of the privateer ship 
"Gloucester Packet," December 29, 1780, 
and of the privateer ship "Harriet," Janu- 
ary 21, 1782. 



DOCTOR SAMUEL BLANCHARD 
was Surgeon of the privateer ship "Pil- 
grim," of Beverly, commanded by Captain 
John Robinson, in 17S0. In a list of officers 
of that ship dated .August 2, of that year, 
he is described as follows; "age 25 years; 
stature 6 feet ; complexion, light ; residence, 
Boston." 

DOCTOR'S MATE ELIAS DAVIS had 
no further record of medical service in 
the Revolution and it is highly improbable 
that he was the man of that name who 
commanded the privateer brigantine "Fair- 
play," in 1780; the privateer schooner "Pea- 
cock," and privateer brigantine "Favorite," 
in 1781, and the privateer brig "Tybalt," in 
1783. 



<&>vilhi£m $c domtnntt 



on gooH^ anb <$tljet gubjttld 



Massachusetts Magazine: — 

The article in your magazine about my 
work on the Foss Genealogy brought me 
from a Mr. Crosby of Minot, N. D., a sub- 
scriber, a lot of Foss records of Maine that 
I had been in search for, a long time. 

The following may interest your Massa- 
chusetts readers : 

I have skirmished the world over, and 
written hundreds of letters, in order to 
learn the origin of John Foss, the immi- 
grant 

Last November I received the following 
from Copenhagen, Denmark : 

"The Foss Family belonged to the Nor- 
wegian Nobility. 

"The first one of the name coming to 
Denmark was David Lauritsen Foss, 
(spelled with a long S, as used in the Dan- 
ish language), was born in Norway, in 1604. 
He married, in 1637, Anna Hundevard, born 
in 1619. He settled in Rebe, Denmark, and 
died there, Aug. 8, 1659. His wife died in 
1684. He was a Magistrate, Provost and a 
minister of the gospel.' 

CHILDREN: 

i Johan (John in English), born in Rebe, 
Denmark, Jan. 3, 1638 ; immigrated to 
America, as shown by letters to his 
parents. 

ii Laurits Davidson, b. Jan. 8, 1643; mar- 
ried Oct. 7, 1690, Anna Christiana 
Nieldatter Sommer, born in 1667. He 
was Provost and Minister of the 
Gospel. He died Feb. 21, 1728. 
iii Antonius, b. May 8, 1646. He married 
first, Margereth Schnell; second, 



Mary Lange. He was a Minister of 
the gospel, and a musician of fame. 
He died April 4, 1696." 

Guy S. Rix, 
Concord, X. H. 

On account of ill health and advancing 
age, Mr. Rix was compelled to abandon the 
publication of his history of the Fox family, 
which he has been working on for a num- 
ber of years. He presented it to the Xew 
England Historic Genealogical Society. 



The late J. Pierpont Morgan was always 
deeply interested in his Massachusetts an- 
cestors, who settled in the Connecticut val- 
ley, where now is located the city of Hol- 
yoke. The old homestead, built by his 
grandfather, Joseph Morgan, is still stand- 
ing on Northampton street, Holyoke, the 
attraction of much interest from strangers. 
J. Pierpont Morgan's father was born in 
this house and lived here until the elder 
Morgan removed to Hartford. The great 
financier gave $10,000 to the Connecticut 
Valley Historical Society, ''in memory of 
my father and other distant ancestors." 
When Holyoke instituted a campaign for a 
new city library building, Mr. Morgan do- 
nated $10,000 towards it ; and in years past 
made several other gifts to church, school 
and cemetery associations. 



So far as can be found, every individual 
in the United States who bears the name of 
Lunt sprang from Henry Lunt, who is 
known to have sailed from London in the 
ship "Mary and John," two hundred and 
eighty years ago (in January', 1633). He 
settled in Newbury, Mass., in the spring of 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



113 



1634-5, and was one of the original settlers 
of that interesting old town. Mr. T. S. 
Lunt, a descendant who has clung to the 
native soil, has prepared a history of the 
family, which will be published soon. 



Chicago claims to harbor the remains of 
the last survivor of the Boston Tea Party, 
■who was David Kennison, a native of New 
Hampshire, who fought in the War of the 
Revolution and the War of 1812, and was 
-at one time a member of the Ft. Dearborn 
garrison, long before Chicago was incor- 
porated. He died, so it is claimed, in Chi- 
cago, in 1852, a very old man, and is still 
remembered by some of Chicago's older 
-citizens. We are told that the local histor- 
ical society recognizes the identity of Ken- 
nison and that a tablet or monument has 
been erected to his memory. 



The dean of our editorial board, Hon. 
•George Sheldon, has had two cataracts re- 
moved from his eyes within the past year, 
-and his friends are rejoiced that he has 
borne up well under the ordeal. His age 
is nearing the century mark. He will be 
ninety-five the 18th of November, 1913. He 
has been the President of the Pocumtuck 
Valley Memorial Association from, its in- 
ception, forty-five years ago. 



Miss Marion H. Brazier, of Trinity 
Court, Boston, answers a question that is 
often asked : "What is the difference be- 
tween the 'Daughters of the Revolution' 
and the 'Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution?'" in this way: 

The only "difference" is the manner of 
organization, the D. A. R., the older society, 
being a National organization, with a char- 
ter issued by the United States Congress. 
The D. R. is an offshoot — rather it was 
formed by certain seceders from the D. A. 



R. — and is a State society. It can never be 
National, as there can be only one. Their 
term is "General Society, Daughter^ of the 
Revolution,'' but each State has its own set 
of officers. Both societies are made up of 
lineal descendants of men of the Revolu- 
tionary period and both have the same ob- 
ject and work in harmony. Massachusetts 
has the largest number of D. A. R. and D. 
R. in the country. 
Dec. 24, 1912. 



"The deck directly in front of me has its 
history," said Henry Cabot Lodge, in a re- 
cent episode in a Senate debate. "It has 
seemed desirable to many Senators — in fact 
the idea did not originate with me, but with 
our late colleague, Senator Heyburn, of 
Idaho — that it would be a very interesting 
thing to have a plate on each desk showing 
who its occupants had been. That was the 
harmless purpose of this amendment. It 
may not be of the slightest interest to 
future generations to know that a certain 
desk was occupied by me, or by the Senator 
from New Jersey, but I think it will be of 
some interest to future generations if a 
memorial is kept of the desks that were oc- 
cupied by men like Webster, Clay and Cal- 
houn. It is only to preserve these historical 
memorials, which are always worth pre- 
serving if we have a reverence for the his- 
tory of our country, that this suggestion of 
a little plate for each desk was brought to 
me, and I took great pleasure in introducing 
the amendment." 



Mrs. Annette R. Hume, who is the only 
member of the New England Historic Gen- 
ealogical Society resident in the State of 
Oklahoma, writes that she is much inter- 
ested in the early families of Coggswell, 
Hawkes, Emerson, Brown, Perkins, Cox, 
Knight, Ayers, Kingsbury, Denison and 
Symonds. 

Her address is Anadarko, Okla. 



114 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Charles A. Flagg, one of the editors of 
the Massachusetts Magazine, has re- 
signed his position with the Congressional 
Library at Washington, and accepted a po- 
sition as librarian of the new public library 
at Bangor, Me. 



Judge Francis M. Thompson, of Green- 
field, w r rites : "The Greenfield Historical 
Society is prospering beyond all expecta- 
tion. I could have hardly believed that in 
so short a time it could have gathered in 
so many valuable relics as it has." 



The Romance of the American Navy, by 
Frederic Stanhope Hill, late U. S. N. 
395 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50 
net. 

In bringing together these stirring tales 
of American naval endeavor, the author 
has made a generous survey of the whole 
subject, beginning with the little pinnace 
owned in 1636 by Gallop, and ending with 
the cruise of the battleship fleet around the 
world in 1909. 

He uses the term navy in the broadest 
sense, and includes "all vessels commanded 
or manned by American seamen, whether 
or not their vessels might, at the time, be 
included in the roster of the Colonial or 
American navy." His tribute to the Amer- 
ican privateers is just and generous, and 
we are pleased to quote as follows at length 
from the introduction: 

"It is a noteworthy fact that in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and, later, in the War of 
1812, not less than sixty of the most dis- 
tinguished officers in our navy served for a 
time either in command or as officers on 
board privateers. Truxton, Hopkins, Tal- 
bot, Barney, Decatur, Porter, Biddle, 
Rodgers, Bainbridge, Little, Robinson and 
Smith were all in this category. 



"To show how intimately connected the 
history of the United States navy has been 
with that of the privateer-, it is sufficient 
to state that in our first war the vessels 

built or purchased by the Government num- 
bered sixty-tour, carrying one thousand 
two hundred and forty-two guns and 
swivels, which captured one hundred and 
ninety-six vessels. The privateers num- 
bered seven hundred and ninety-two, carry- 
ing more than thirteen thousand guns and 
swivels, which captured or destroyed nenrly 
six hundred vessels. In the War of 1812, 
the regular navy numbered only twenty- 
three vessels, carrying rive hundred and 
fifty-six guns. This force captured <<r de- 
stroyed two hundred and fifty-four of the 
enemy's ships, public and private. The pri- 
vateers, in the same war, numbered live 
hundred and seventeen vessels, carrying two 
thousand eight hundred and ninety-three 
guns, which took or destroyed one thousand 
three hundred prizes, valued at $45.ouO,UOO, 
and captured thirty thousand prisoners, 
more than one thousand of whom were offi- 
cers and privates of the regular English 
army." 

The author has selected his heroes wisely 
from the large number of valiant sea-fight- 
ers who have served under the Flag of 
Freedom. 

Jones, Barney, Haraden, Mugford, Hard- 
ing, in the Revolution ; Shaw in the naval 
war with France; Decatur and Preble in 
the war with Tripoli ; Hull, Lawrence, Bain- 
bridge, Perry and MacDonough in the war 
of 1812; Farragut, Porter and many others 
in the Civil War ; Dewey, Schley and Samp- 
son in the Spanish War furnish a series of 
brilliant victories that have made the Amer- 
ican Navy the peer of the world. 

He closes with the account of the world- 
circling cruise of the battleship fleet, and 
his last word is as follows : "'It is a far cry, 
indeed, from those early days, when the 
plucky little Enterprise bore her part so 
sturdily in defending the honor of our flag 
on both sides of the Atlantic, down to this 
latest peaceful passage of our sixteen mon- 
ster battleships forty-rive thousand miles 
around the world. Yet they returned to 
our shors as they left them, fourteen 
months before, all ready for a fight or a 
frolic — this episode in itself the greatest 
and happiest romance in all the century's 
history of our Xavy." 

F. A. G. 



(This is the tenth instalment of a series of articles on Massachusetts Pioneers to other states, to b« 
published by The Massachusetts Magazine.] 

MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS. 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



Besides the abbreviations of book titles, (explained on pages 76, 77, 78 and 79 of April, and page 180 of 
July, 1908 issues) the following are used: b. for born; d. for died; m. for married; set. for settled in. 



Sallie M. of Middleborough, b. 1846; 

m. Fred J. Brown of Mich. Ingham 

Port , 365. 
Susan, of Wrentham, m. 1810? 

Ephraim Wilbur of N. Y. Hillsdale Port., 

189. 
Lewis, Anna, b. Springfield; m. 1878, Al- 
exander W. Morrison of Mich. Clinton 

Past, 203. i 
. Benjamin, set. N. Y. 1820? O., Mich., 

Wis. Hillsdale Port., 799. 
Cyrus A., b. Grafton, 1832; set. R. I., 

Mich. 1851. Washtenaw Hist., 1016. 
Elisha, b. Barnstable County, 1800? 

set. N. Y., O., Mich. Hillsdale Port., 799. 
George F., b. Harvard 1828; set- 

Mich. 1835. Bay Hist., 96; Lake Huron, 

96; Saginaw Hist., 469; St. Clair, 415. 
Isaac, b. Boston; set. N. Y. 1820? 

Berrien Port., 136. 
John, b. Walpole, 1750? set. N. Y- 

1785? Lenawee Port., 1125. 
William, Sr., set., N. Y. 1810? 

Branch Twent., 842. 
William, b. 1799; set. Mich. 1832, 

Cal. 1849. Macomb Past, 611. 
Lilley, Zenas, set. N. Y. 1810? O. 

Lenawee Port., 822. 
Zenas Jr., set. N. Y. 1820? O. 1834. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 117. 
Lilly, Alanson, b. Franklin Co., 1817; set. 

O. 1832. Kalamazoo Port., 327. 
Austin, of Ashfield; set. O. 1832. 

Kalamazoo Port., 327. 

Lincoln, Abiathar, set. Vt., N. Y., Mich., 
1835. Jackson Port., 748. 

" Abiathar, Jr., set. Vt., N. Y., 1829, 

Mich. 1837. Jackson Port., 748. 



Benjamin F., b. Wareham, 1831; set. 

Oregon, 1853, Vt. 1862. Traverse, 311. 

Charity, b. Taunton, 1782; m. 1803, 

George Crane of N. Y. and Mich. Lena- 
wee Hist. I, 253, 510; Lenawee Port., 
371, 636. 

Ephraim, b. Berkshire Co., 1786; set. 

N. Y. 1805. Jackson Port., 671. 

Mercy, b. Taunton, 17S5; m. 1st Tis- 

dale Walker of Mass. and X. Y. ; m. 2d 

1816, Ephraim Hicks of Mich. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 159; 11,336; Lenawee Illus., 320. 
Otis, set. N.Y., 1805. Jackson Port., 

671. 
Lindsay, Isaac, set. N. Y., 1790. Branch 

Hist., 306. 
Lindsey, Lucius L., b. 1804; set. N. Y., 

Mich. 1841. Kalamazoo Port., 286. 
Lindsley, Joseph A., b. Salem 1842? set. 

Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 502. 
Lines, Mary, m. 1845? Charles Donwall of 

N. Y. Jackson Hist., 620. 
Linnell, Elijah, b. Barnstable, 1799; set. 

N. Y., Mich. Lenawee Illus., 106. 
Linsey, Robert, b. Colerain, 1797; set. 

N. Y. Hillsdale Port., 705. 
Litchfield, Jemima, b. Chesterfield, 1813; 

m. A. C. Clarke. Jackson Hist., 969. 
Little, Mrs. Ruth (wife of Henry), b. 

Monson, 1800; set. Mich. 1831. St. Clair, 

119. 
Littlejohn, John, of Martha's Vineyard; 

set. Mich. 1840. Allegan Hist., 154. 
Livermore, James, b. 17S9; set. Me., Mich., 

1835. Ingham Port., 198. 
Mary Ann, m. 1812? Ebenezer O. 

Grosvenor of Mass. and N. Y. Monroe, 

448. 



116 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Samuel, set. Penn. 1820? Saginaw 

Port.. 481. 

Locke, Reuben, set. N. Y. 1825? Ionia 
Port., 510. 



Lothrop, George V. N., b. Eastern, L817; 
set. Mich. 1839 or 1843. Detroit, 1124; 
Wayne Chron., 341; Wayne Land., 761. 

Martha, b. Enfield. 1798; m. 1825, 



Russell, set. N.Y., Mich. 1835. Ionia Elijah Linnell Lenawee Illus., 107 



Port., 510 

Lombard, Annie A., of Acushnet; m. 1800? 
Benjamin F. Lincoln of Ore. and Vt 
Traverse, 311. 

Frank W , b. Springfield, 1843; set. 

Ind. 1846; Mich. 1864. Traverse, 264. 

Lomis, Jacob L., set. N. Y. 1800? Oak- 
land Biog., 526. 

Thomas N., set. N. Y. 1800? Oakland 

Hist., 157. 

Long, A. H., set Mich. 1844. Cass Twent., 
354. 

— — Appolos, b. 1790; set, N. Y. 1820? 

Lenawee Port., 312. 
Henry, set. Mich. 1844. Cass Twent. 

354. 
O. N.,b. Franklin Co., 1813; set. N.Y.! 

Mich., 1837. Cass Hist., 304. 
Oscar, set. Mich. 1844. Cass Twent. 

354. 
Longley, Angle R. of Franklin Co. m. 

1860, Andrew F. Ashley of Mo. and 

Mich. Upper P., 444. 
Look, Henry M., set. Mich. 1830? Oak- 
land Hist., 48. 
Thankful, b. Martha's Vineyard, 1800 ; 

m. Walter Harris of Vt. and Mich. Len- 
awee Port., 196. 
Loomis, Anjenette, b. 1811; m Fowler J- 

Preston of Mich. Berrien Port., 117; 

Berrien Twent., 949. 
Daniel, b. Pittsfield, 1782; set. N. Y. 

1820. Lenawee Hist. I, 123. 
Daniel A., b. Lanesboro, 1811; set- 

N. Y. 1820. Lenawee Hist. I, 123. 
John, b. Hampden Co., 1827; set. 

Mich. 1836. Saginaw Hist., 899. 
Josiah, 1812 soldier; set. Mich. 1836. 

Saginaw Hist., 899. 
Lucinda, b. Hinsdale, 1785; m. 1802 

Jesse Millard of N. Y. and Mich. Lena- 
wee Hist. I, 296. 
Mary, b. Hampden Co.; m. 1815? 

William H. Fay of O. Muskegon Port., 

173. 
Loring, Julia, m. 1835? Harley C. Clark 

of N. Y. Macomb Hist., 790. 



Loud, Watson, b. Westhampton, 

set. Mich. 1840. Macomb Hist., 663. 

Lovejoy, James, b. Boston. 1849; set. 
Minn. 1867, Mich. 1875. Traverse, 282, 

William, b. Greenfield, 1762; set N Y. 

1810? Hillsdale Port., 201. , 

Loveland, Samuel H., b. Washington 

1832; set. X. Y., Mich. 1855. Gratiot' 

369. 
Loveridge, Caleb, b. Deerfield. 1792; 1812 

soldier; set. Conn.,N. Y. 1820? Allegan 

Twent., 168; Kalamazoo Port., 335, 
Lowe, Susanna, b. Ipswich. 1773; m. Ben- 
jamin Procter of Mass. and X. H. Ma- 
comb Hist., 835. 
Lowell, Josiah, b. 1791; set. N. Y. 1813?, 

Mich. 1840. Clinton Port., 64 or 041. 
Nelson, b. Newbury; set. Mich. 1830? 

Jackson Hist., 665. 
Lucas, Isaac W.,b. Salem; set. Mich. 1855? 

Berrien Twent., 381. 
Luce, Abijah, b. Martha's Vinevard 1781; 

set. R. I. 1S35, Mich. 1845. Grand 

River, appendix 38. 
Benjamin F., b. Pittsfieid. 1816; set. 

Mich. 1837. Lake Huron, 226. 
C. F. E., b. Danvers, 1808; set. N. Y., 

Mich. Genesee Port., 914. 
Joseph, b. 1780; set.. X. Y. 1820? 

Lenawee Hist. II, 232. 
Nancv, m. 1800? Bezaleel Frost of 

N. Y. Macomb Hist., 698. 
Lyman, Anna, of Westfield; m. 1S02. Riley 

Williams of Vt. Lenawee Hist. I. 2^S. 
Hannah, m. 1825? Joel Newman of 

Mich. Xorthern M., 381. 
Lynch, Almira, m. 1830? Armenius Owen 

of Mich. Branch Twent., 774. 
Xancy, m. 1830? David Harrington 

of X. Y. and Mich. Jackson Port.. 249. 
Lyon, Simeon of Dedham; set. Mich. 1S43. 

Hillsdale Hist., 224. 
— — Wakeman, set. N. Y. 1S10' Genesee 

Port., 992. 
Lyons, Diana, b. Colerain, 1809; m. Curtis 

Coman of Mich. Hillsdale Port., 701. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



117 



Lyons, Mellona, b. Colerain, 1S14; m. Kel- 
logg Haskins of Vt. and O. Jackson 

Port.,S36. 
McArthur, Alexander, b. Acton, 17S6; set. 

Vt., Mich. Ingham Hist., 437. 
McBride, Mary, b. Boston, 1804? m. John 

Newell of Mass. and Canada. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 393. 
McCarty, James, b. Roxbury, 1815 ; set. 

Mich., 1830. Saginaw Hist., 679. 
McCollum, Daniel, b. Berkshire Co., 1800; 

set. Mich. Monroe, 505. 
McComber, Esther, m. 1805? Charles 

Campbell of Vt. and N. Y. Kalamazoo 

Port, 610. 
McCoy, James, set. Mich., 1865. Lake 

Huron, 166. 
McElroy, Nancy M., b. Boston, 1771 ; m. 

Daniel Robinson of Vt. and N. H. Clin- 
ton Port., 613. 
McGee, David, b. Coleraine, 1760; set N. 

Y., 1810? Mich., 1835. Jackson Port., 

812. 
— - Thomas, b. Coleraine, 1790 ; set. N. 

Y, Mich., 1832. Jackson Port, 812; 

Jackson Hist., 670. 
McHench, William, set. N. Y. d. 1867. 

Ingham Port, 681. 
McIntyre, Lucinda E, m. 1820? Shubal 

Baker of N. Y. Jackson Hist., 827. 
Mack, Abner, b. Montague, 1795; set. Vt., 

0, Mch., 1832. Kalamazoo Hist., facing 
446. 

McKee, Electa, m. 1815? David King of 

N. Y. Clinton Port, 538. 
Mackintosh, Mary A., m. 1840? Wells 

Field of Mich. Kalamazoo Port, 737. 
McLouth, Benjamin, b. Cheshire : set. N. 

Y, Ind, Mich. d. 1868. Branch Port, 

273. 

■ Draxa, b. 1789; m. Levi Fuller of N. 

Y. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist, 1428. 

■ Jane, b. Worthington; m. 1884 Al- 
fred Cheney of Mich. Branch Port, 272. 

Oliver C, b. 1784; set. Mich. Hills- 
dale Port, 259. 

William W, b. Cheshire, 1792; set. 

N. Y, 1815; Mich, 1835. Lenawee Hist, 

1, 193; Lenawee Illus, 190. 

McNett, Samuel; 1812 soldier; set. N. Y. 
Muskegon Port, 19\ 



Macomber, Hannah, b. 1807; m. Joshua 
Simmons of Mich. Oakland Port, 201. 
602. 

Harriet, m. 1850? Nathaniel A. 

Armstrong of Mich. Cass Twent, 454. 

McOmber, James, b. Berkley, 1801 ; set. Vt, 
Mich, 1835. Cass Hist, 201; Cass 
Twent, 74. 

Macoy, Rebecca, b. 1776; m. Elijah Smith 
of Vt, N. Y. and Mich. Kalamazoo Hist, 
423. 

Macumber, Nathaniel, set. N. Y, 1815? 
Mich, 1827. Newaygo, 267. 

Macy, Eliza G, b. Nantucket, 1821 ; set. 
Mich, 1833: m. 1846, Dyer H. Mudge of 
Mich. Lenawee Hist. II, 325. 

Elizabeth, b. Nantucket, 1763; m. 

Uriah Barnard. Berrien Port, 217. 

Obed, b. Nantucket, 1770: set. N. Y, 

1827, Mich, 1833. Lenawee Hist. II, 326. 

Makepeace, Martha S., b. Brook-held; m. 
1840. Edwin W. Giddings of Conn. Ma- 
comb Hist, 657. 

Malcolm, Samuel, b. 1815; set. Mich, 1837. 
Jackson Hist, 833. 

Mallery, Amanda, b. Easthampton, 1822; 
m. 1839, Jonathan B. Keeney of Mich. 
Lenawee Hist. II, 434. 

Zalmon, b. Montgomery, 1784; set. 

Mich, 1836. Lenawee Hist. II, 435. 

Mallory, Azriah, b. New Ashford, 1804; 
set. N. Y, 1820? Mich, 1837. Hillsdale 
Hist, 250; Kent, 1223. 

Otis, set. N. Y. 1819. Genesee Port, 

441. 

Manley, Thomas, set. Vt, 1800. Macomb 
Hist, 734. 

Manly, Julia E, b. Sandisfield ; m. 1820? 

Thaddeus Granger of O. Macomb Hist, 

797. 
Mann, Esther, m. Thomas Richardson of 

Yt. and Canada. Genesee Port, 206. 

Robert, b. Ipswich, 1831 : set. Mich, 

1849. Ingham Hist, 402. 

Manning, William, b. Harvard, 1808; set 
La, Mich. Washtenaw Port, 483. 

Mansfield, Josiah, set. N. Y, 1815? Me- 
costa, 309. 



118 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Marble, Charles, set. N. Y., 1820, Mich., 
1843. Lenawee Port., 1121. 

Emma, m. 1805? Peter Brewer of N. 

Y. Calhoun, 74. 

James, b. Salem ; set. N. Y., Ind., 

1844; d. 1848. Berrien Port., 707. 

Phebe, b. Taunton, 1794; set. N. Y., 

1820; m. Samuel Brightman of N. Y. and 
Mich. Lenawee Port., 1121. 

Sarah L., m. 1817, Augustus D. Dor- 

. ranee of N. Y. Ingham Port., 853. 
Marick, Polly, b. 1800? m. Daniel Hath- 
away of O. Gratiot, 278. 

Markham, Sarah H., b. Boston; m. 1870? 

William T. Lamoreaux of Mich. Kent, 

1069. 
Marris, Alvira, m. 1828, Humphrey Smith 

of N. Y. and Mich. St. Clair, 706. 

Marsh, Elizabeth, b. 1830; m. 1st, Homer 
A. Lewe; m. 2d. 1843, L. D. Halsfed, 
Branch Twent, 590. 

Ellen M., m. 1st, 1850? Samuel Ar- 
nold of N. Y. ; m. 2d, George W. Petty of 
Mich. Macomb Port., 147. 

Emerson, set. Mich., 1838. Branch 

Twent., 591. 

Hollister, F., b. 1808; set. N. Y, 

Mich., 1853. Kalamazoo Port, 284. 

Justin, b. Montague, 1796; set. N. 

Y, Mich., 1837. Monroe, 505. 

Lydia, b. 1786 ; m. Uriah Chappell of 

Ohio. Ingham Hist., 348. 

Z. H, b. Montague, 1811; set. N. Y., 

Mich, 1845? Ingham Port, 602; Me- 
costa, . 

Martin, Amos, b. Franklin Co. ; set. Mich. 
1848. Wayne Chron, 73. 

Elizabeth, m. 1815? John Williams 

of Mass. and N. Y. Clinton Port, 504. 

Experience, m. 1770? Joseph Baker 

of Vt. and Mass. Lenawee Port, 303. 

Julia, b. Coleraine, 1817; m. 1840? 

Abram Hayner of N. Y. and Mich. Ing- 
ham Hist, 330; Lansing, 471. 

Martindale, Elisha, b. Lenox; d. 1861. 

Hillsdale Port, 393. 

T. D, set. O, 1820? Kent, 576. 

Marvin, Nathan, b. Granville, 1786; set. 

Mich, 1832. Jackson Hist, 169. 



set. 



Ma- 



Mason, Benjamin, b. 1738 ; set. N. Y. Ionia 
Port, 612. 

Brooks, set. N. Y. 1861. Muskegon 

Port, 467. 

Brooks, Jr., b. Cheshire; set. N. Y. 

1801. Branch Port, 465. 

David, b. 1791 ; set. X. Y, Pa. Le- 
nawee Illus, 372. 

H. L, b. Berkshire Co, 1841 

Mich. 1852. Jackson Hist, 1028. 

Ichabod, set. N. Y. ?. 1864. 

comb Hist, 857. 

Isaac, b. 1798; set. N.Y. 1801. Mus- 
kegon Port, 467. 

John, b. Swansea, 1767; set. X. Y. 

1801. Lenawee Hist. II, 4S0; Lenawee 
Port, 199. 

John L, b. 1800; set. X. Y. 1816. 

Kalamazoo Port, 914. 

Lucy, b. Lanesboro, 1798; m. Sey- 
mour Mead of Mass, 0. and Mich. Le- 
nawee Port., 942. 

Lucy D, of Berkshire Co.; m. 1830? 

Joseph X. Ferry of X. Y. Wayne 
Chron, 442. 

Lyman G, b. Belchertown, 1829; set. 

Mich. 1855. Muskegon Hist, 132. 

Mial, b. 1808; set. Mich, 1836. Wash- 
tenaw Hist, 1403. 

Octavius, b. Cheshire 1795 ; set. N. 

Y, Mich, 1840. Branch Port, 465. 

Phoebe, m. 1800? Clark Chase of 

N. Y. Kalamazoo Hist, facing 423. 

Sally, b. Attleboro, 1798; m. Xa- 

thaniel Cole of X. Y. and Mich. Ma- 
comb Hist, 650. 

Mathews, Gideon, set. Mich. 1837. Kala- 
mazoo Port, 855. 

Matthews, Salmon H, of Conway, set 
Mich. 1827. Washtenaw, 629; Washte- 
naw Past, 805. 

May, Celestia E, b. Sandisfield: m. 1820? 
Deacon Rockwell of Mich. Kalamazoo 
Port, 313. 

Charles S, b. Sandisfield, 1830; set 

Mich. 1834. St. Clair, 121. 

Dwight, b. Sandisfield, 1822; set 

Mich. 1834. Kalamazoo Hist, 119, 278; 
St. Clair, 119. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



119 



May Russell G., b. near Pittsfield, 1804; 

set. N. Y. 1826. Mich. 1837. Cass Twent, 

440. 
Mayhew, George R., b. S. Abington, 1850; 

set. Mich. Kent, 1075. 

Maynard, Colonel, 1812 soldier; set. N. Y. 
1810. Jackson Port., 825. 

Ezra, b. Conway; set. Mich. 1824. 

Washtenaw Hist., 1253. 

John W., set. Mich. 1824. Grand 

Rapids City, 321 ; Kent, 1075. 

William S., b. Berkshire Co., 1802; 

set. Mich. 1830. Washtenaw Hist, 270; 
Washtenaw Part, 684. 

William S., b. Sudbury, 1803 ; set. N. 

Y., Pa. Kalamazoo Port., 677. 

Meacham, Almon, set. O., d. 1852. Gratiot, 
215. 

Polly A., b. Shelby, 1826; m. 1843, 

John Friend of N. Y. and Mich. Ionia 
Hist., 355. 

Sarah, m. 1815, Asa Lee of O. Sag- 
inaw Port., 617. 

Mead, Edmund W., set. N. Y. 1820? Ohio. 
Newaygo, 476. 

— - George, Lanesboro, 1826 ; set. O. 1840, 
Mich. 1851. Lenawee Port., 942. 

Lucy, b. Boston ; m. 1805 ? Samuel 

Garlick of Ct., N. Y. and Mich. Ma- 
comb Hist., 699. 

■ Minerva L., b. Lanesboro, 1823; set. 

Mich. 1833; m. 1844, Joel Carpenter of 
Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 299; Lenawee 
Illus., 151. 

Seymour, b. Lanesboro, 1789; set. O. 

1847, Mich. 1851. Lenawee Port., 941. 
■ Stephen M., b. Lanesboro, 1822 ; set. 

O. 1860, Mich. 1878. Lenawee Port., 941. 
Mears, Albert, b. Billerica, 1821 ; set. Mich. 

1836 or 1837. Muskebon Hist., 132; Mus- 
kegon Port., 194. 
■ Charles, b. N. Billerica, 1814; set. 

Mich/ 1836. Muskegon Hist., 132. 
Mellen, Martha, of Hopkinton ; m. 1755? 

Samuel Chamberlain. Berrien Port., 

885. 

Mentor, Emily, m. 1815? Ebenezer Har- 
rington of N. Y. Kalamazoo Port., 426. 

Merchant, James S, set. Me., Mich. 1840. 
St. Clair, 752. 



Merriam, Aluira, b. 1S04; m. 1825' Obed 
Taylor of Mich. Washtenaw Hi-t., OJ7. 

Merrick, Benjamin P., b. Holyoke, 1S77; 
set. Mich. Grand Rapids Hist., 7'A>. 

Merrill, H. W., set. Mich. 1845. Wavne 
Chron., 81. 

Welthy, m. 1810? Seth C. Darwin of 

X. Y. and Mich. Ingham Port., 221. 

William G., b. Haverhill, 1800; set 

Mich. 1847. Genesee Port., 845, 1036. 

Merrills, Isaac, b. Amesbury; set. X. H. 

1770? Jackson Port., 783. 
Merritt, Charles A., set. O. 1851, Mich. 

1855. Ingham Hist., 367. 
Merryfield, Xani y. m. 1830? E. F. Smith, 

Sr., of Mich. Ionia Hist., 303. 

Metcalf, Phineas, set. X. Y. 1820? Ionia 

Port., 282. 
Miles, Elijah, b. Stockbridge; set. X. Y. 

1810? St. Clair, 6S0. 

Emily, b. Ashneld, 1820:' m. 1S43 

Alanson Lilly of Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 
327. 

Jonathan Eastman, b. Hampden 

Co.. 1782: set. X. Y. 1800. Bernier Hist., 
462. 

Millard, Doctor, set. N. Y. 1827, Mich. 
1841. Ionia Port, 660, 670. 

Charles, b. Berkshire Co, 1S19; set. 

X. Y. 1827, Mich. 1840. Ionia Port, 660. 

Eleazer, b. Rehoboth ; set. X. Y. 

1760? Ionia Port, 674. 

Eunice, m. 1780? Enos Walker of 

Mass. and Yt. Jackson Port, 787. 

Leander, b. 1824: set. X. Y. 1827, 

Mich. 1841. Ionia Port, 670. 

Miller, Ashur. set. X. Y. 1840? Mich. 
1853. Kent, 1079. 

Charles, set. Mich. 1878. Lake 

Huron. 273. 

Charlotte, m. 1825? Absalom Tra- 

ver of X. Y. and Mich. Lansing, 259. 

Miller, Evi. set. X. Y. 1810' Kent, 1400. 

John G.. b. Xorthampton, 1S22; set 

Mich. Hillsdale Port, 909. 

Laura, m. 1820? Horace Coles or 

Cowles of Mass. and O. Isabella, 353, 
388. 

Xorton L.. b. Berkshire Co, 1815; 

set. X. Y. 1818, Mich. 1832. Macomb 
Hist, 596; Macomb Past, 11. 



120 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Relief, b. Marlborough, 1775; m. 

1797, William Weatherby of Vt., N. Y. 
and Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 136; Lena- 
wee Illus, 117; Lenawee Port., 1020. 

Sally, b. 1775 ; m. 1775, Stephen In- 

galls of Mass. and N. Y. Lenawee Hist., 
II, 78. 

Mills, Sarah J., b. Great Barrington, 1818; 
m. 1846, Timothy Clark of Mich. Branch 
Port., 271 ; Branch Twent, 677. 

Stephen, set .Vt., N. Y., Mich., 1837. 

Ingham Hist., 475. 

Miner, Joseph P., set. O. 1S40? Saginaw 
Hist, 879. 

Linus K., b. Springfield; set. N. Y., 

Mitchell, Alonzo, b. Cummington, 1807; 

set. N. Y. 1820, Mich. 1831. Lenawee 
Port., 285. 

Charles K., set. N. H., d. 1869. Isa- 
bella, 465. 

Dexter, set. N. Y. 1820? Mich. 1831. 

Northern M., 321. 

Joseph, b. Nantucket; set. N. Y. 

1820? Lenawee Port., 580. 

Martha K., b. 1810; m. 1834. Charles 

M. Baldwin of Mich. Lenawee Illus., 
343. 

William, b. Cummington, 1782; set. 

Mich. 1833. Lenawee Port., 285. 

Moffitt, George, b. Worcester Co., 1827; 
set. Mich. 1836. Washtenaw Hist., 1448. 

Horace, of Worcester, b. 1800; set. 

Mich. 1836, O. Washtenaw Hist., 1448. 

Monroe, Dan, set. X. Y. 1816. Newaygo, 
437. 

Darius, b. Williamstown? 1796; set. 

N. Y. 1809, Mich. 1856. Branch Port., 
544. 

Philetus, b. Berkshire Co., 1815; set. 

N. Y. 1816, Mich. 1864. Newaygo, 437. 

Montague, Daniel M., b. 1825? set. N. Y., 
Mich. Genesee Port., 719. 

Daniel N., b. Hadley ; set. N. Y. 

1834, Mich. 1839. Genesee Hist., 368. 

Stillman, set. N. Y. 1825? Branch 

Twent., 717. 

Montgomery, Chauxcy, b. 1827; set. O. 
1853, Ind. 1857, Mich. 1875. Upper P., 
227. 



Henry, from near B<>st<>n: ^et. X Y 

1800. Lenawee Hist. I. 

Moody, William, b. 1810: set. ( >. Gratiot, 
361. 

Moon, Clarissa, b. Tyinghain. 1790? m Al- 
bert Stickney of O. Ingham Port.. 4.%. 

Moor, Anna, m. 1835? J. D. Doane of Mich. 
Washtenaw Hist., 708. 

Moore, Aaron, b. Bolton? set X. V. 1810* 
Detroit, 1194. 

Dayton, set. O. 1840 > Ind., Mich. 

1854. Newaygo, 288. 

Elijah, set. X. Y., d. 1840. Isabella, 

477. 

George F., b. Berkshire Co., 1832; 

set. N. Y. 1847, Mich. 1859. Detroit, 
1161. 

John, of Berkshire Co. ; set. X. Y. 

1847, d. 1858. Detroit, 116. 

John, b. Berkshire Co.. 1824; set. X. 

Y., Mich. 1868. Washtenaw Hist., 1021. 

Lillian, of Berkshire Co., m. 1871, 

B. W. Wright of Mich. Upper P., 451. 

Loren, b. Coleraine. 1802; set. X. Y. 

1803, Mich. 1831. Washtenaw Past, 182. 

Lovell, b. Shirley. 1797; set. Mich. 

1831. Grand Rapids Lowell, 106; Grand 
Rapids Hist., 175; Kent, 263. 

Rhoda, b. Heath, 1790; m. Calvin 

Love of X. Y. and Mich. Lenawee Illus., 
106. 

Washington, of Coleraine; set. N. 

Y. 1803; 1812 soldier. Hillsdale Port, 997 ; 
Washtenaw Past, 182. 

More, Zeruah, m. 1820? Rowland Nimocks 
of N. Y. and Mich. Hillsdale Port., 452. 

Morgan, John C, b. Chicopee. 1856; set. 
Mich. 1869. Berrien Hist, 235. 

Nancy, b. 1780?; m. Daniel Nightin- 
gale of X. H. and Mich. Genesee Port., 
589. 

Samuel A., set. N. Y. 1830? Mich. 

1840. Washtenaw Hist, 1269. 

Morrill, Nathaniel, set. N. H. 1785? Jack- 
son Hist, 771. 

Morris, William, set. Mich. 1820? Oak- 
land Hist, 115. 



(To be continued.) 



I I1L 



MASSACHVSETTS 

MAGAZINE 




- 

'ublished bythe Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass. US. A. 



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^^.t .^W^-.r,. vi ,-v, ^w^^^,,,,.,, r.^^V.^r,. ■ ■ ■-„ ■ ^- ,«i ,j&-mn,i ill. - • lUltttto 



Judge Francis M. Thompson 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR-SCORE YEARS 



By Judge Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, Massachusetts 



Including His Narrative of Three Years in the New West, DUBIHO \\ iii« 11 

He Took in 1862 a 8000-mile Trip From St. Loris up the Missouri, and 

Thence Down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to Portland, and to 

San Francisco, Returning in 1863. 

(Annotations indicated by reference nurr erals in the text, will be found at the end 
of Chapter VI, about eight numbers hence.) 

Although my memory does not serve me in this particular matter, I 
have been led to believe that I was born on an outlying farm of my pater- 
nal grandfather, known as the "Ayer's Place" and located upon a high 
hill or mountain in Colrain, Franklin County.. Massachusetts, on the 16th 
of October, 1833. 

My father, John Thompson, was the. grandson of Joseph and Janette 
McClellan Thompson, who upon their marriage in or near Coleraine, Ire- 
land, immediately, in 1749, with the bride's father, Michael McClellan. 
and his family, emigrated to America. They arrived in season to join 
other Scotch-Irish in the settlement of Boston Township Xo. 2. and give 
the town its name in memory of the old home in Ireland. 

My mother, Elvira, daughter of Captain Edward Adams, was of the 
8th generation in descent from that Henry Adams who settled in 1632. 
at what is now Ouincy, Mass., and became the ancestor of the presidents, 
John and John Quincy Adams. 

My grandfather Adams and his father (also named Edward) had come 
up from the eastern part of the state, and in 1795 had purchased a farm and 
water-power in Colrain ; and later the younger Edward, having purchased 
his father's interest, built a saw-mill, grist-mill, a store, hotel, and after- 
ward, a fulling-mill. The little hamlet which grew up there, early ob- 
tained a post-office, which was called "Adamsville" in honor of my grand- 
father, its first postmaster. 

When Joseph Griswold built his first cotton-mill in Colrain, he em- 
ployed my father as teamster and as agent in purchasing materials neces- 
sary to carry on building and other extensive operations in connection 
with his new undertakings; and my first recollections are of life in the 
factory village of Griswoldville, Mass. 

When my parents moved to Griswoldville I was the youngest of seven 
children; three girls and three other boys. When T was four years old, 

123 



124 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

my youngest sister, Helen, was born (July 4. 1387). My oldest brother 

(Edward) received an injury when about twenty-five year- of a^e, which 
eventually caused his death at the a^e of thirty. All the other children 
of my parents married and had children. 

My first acquaintance with death was the loss by drowning of my 
constant playmate, Joseph Griswold, Jr., about three years of age, while 
we were washing our hands in the mill pond, after making mud pies. 

My grandfather Adams lost his only son, a very bright young man. 
•when he was twenty-two years of age, and took into his home my brother 
Edward, who was then about fifteen years old. So he became to him 
as a son, and when he became of age, he gave him his property,. reserving 
a life use for himself and his wife, whom he had married after the death 
of my own grandmother. Captain Adams sold all his Colrain posses-inns 
in 1835 an d purchased a fine farm in Greenfield, and in 1843 provision was 
made for my parents to become the home-keepers of the Greenfield 
establishment. 

I was then ten years of age and, as was then the custom, attended 
school during the winter term only, as did John, my next older brother. 
The teacher "boarded around'' and, as we lived near the school-house, I 
had the lucrative job of building the fires at the school and received as 
remuneration, the ashes. As the ashes went to enrich the farm, my 
remuneration came to me in rather a diluted form. 

Between 1847 an d 1854 my brother Edward, who owned the farm, my 
father, grandfather's wife and himself had died, in the order named, and 
all the heirs to the estate joined in conveyance of our' interests to my 
brother John to the end that he provide a home for our mother. 

There was no high school in Greenfield at this time, but I had attended 
a select school in the fall each of the three preceding years, and had spent 
a short time at Williston Seminary, and felt myself equipped to teach 
a common school. I obtained a school in Deerfield, at North Wisdom. 
not far from Greenfield village, and having received a certificate of qualifi- 
cation from the school committee, began my labors. 

When the time for which I engaged was about to expire, the commit- 
tee-men said that they had money for two weeks longer, but it did not 
seem to me that I could survive two weeks more service, and I dismissed 
the school promptly at the time agreed upon. I have never since had 
any desire to teach school. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 125 

My oldest living brother, Hugh M. Thompson, who was at that time 
residing at Essex, Conn., and interested in building a foundry and machine 
works there, invited me to come down and assist him. as he was the local 
manager. As our family had for years owned a sawmill and wood-work- 
ing machinery, I lelt myself to be a competent skilled mechanic, and 
gladly went to my brother's assistance. I was with the Neptune Works 
about a year, during which time I set the engine, sent from New York 
to furnish power for the works, upon its foundation, and tn running con- 
dition. 

Mr. Levi Jones, the husband of my oldest sister, having been in the 
foundry and machine business in Greenfield for many years, induced my 
brother to join him in purchasing an interest in the Green River Mills and 
Machine-shop. The new firm entered upon a thorough overhauling of the 
premises, and built an up-to-date grist and flour mill, a new foundry, and 
a very solid and expensive stone abutment to their dam. They were 
largely in debt. I was the book-keeper and cashier of the Jones & 
Thompson concern, and had charge of the Main street stove and tin shop. 
All went well until the hard times of 1856-7 began, when it was some- 
limes pretty hard work to meet the maturing indebtedness. 

In February, 1856, I received a letter from Mr. George S. Wright, 
banker in Cincinnati. Ohio, offering me a position in his banking and 
exchange office, where was employed Joseph M. Lyons, of Colrain. a rela- 
tive of mine. I was very anxious to take the then fresh advice of Greely ; 
and "Go West, young man," rang in my ears, day and night. I greatly 
disliked to leave the Jones & Thompson firm in its depression, but they 
insisted upon what appeared to be for my advantage. 

Early in March I bade adieu to my aged mother and other friend*. 
and commenced my journey to the then far west. A journey to Cincinnati 
in 1856 was something more than it is today. I stopped off at Buffalo, 
and visited Niagara Falls, spending the most of a raw March day on the 
ice below the cataract, where were entertainments something like those 

at a cattle show. 

For some reason I could not go directly from Cleveland to Cincinnati. 
and was compelled to keep on until we reached the junction of the road 
from Toledo. Before reaching this point I was suffering from a terribly 
sore throat and fever. T had been told to go direct to the home of Mrs. 
Wright's parents when I reached my stopping place, and glad was I to 



126 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

see a motherly old lady, for T was a sick man. When the physician 
arrived, he gave me what I thought heroic treatment, but it proved effect- 
ual, and I was soon able to take my place as junior clerk in the banking 

and exchange office of George S. Wright & Co. on Third street. 

The principal business of the concern was the purchase, at a discount, 
of the uncurrent money with which the west was cursed: getting it re- 
deemed either at par or at a profitable advantage. I think that it was the 
only house in the city which purchased uncurrent gold and silver money. 

The United States for many years paid their annuity to the deported 
Indians at Fort Smith, Arkansas, and generally in Spanish and Mexican 
dollars. The perfect pillared Spanish dollars were worth about 17 per 
cent more than the United States coinage of 1853. and Mexican dollars 
were at a premium of from five to eight per cent. Our house had an agent 
there who purchased at par these coins, and when I went into the office. 
there were several boxes of coin just received. My first employment was 
assorting these odd coins, and making duplicate schedules of them, one of 
which was sent with the coins to Bebee & Co.. Wall Street, New York. 
who were the principal dealers in such coins. It was very interesting 
work, and I soon got an insight into the intricacies of the business, which 
was afterwards of much value to me. 

The banks of issue in Illinois and Indiana had (with the exception of 
the State Bank of Indiana), been based upon the deposit of state bonds 
with the state treasurer, who issued to the parties so doing, the notes of 
their bank to within ten per cent of the selling price of the bonds they 
had deposited. This was all right in times when state bonds were ad- 
vancing; but when they declined, the state required a deposit of more 
bonds to make the security good. Such state bonds as the banks had 
deposited had rapidly declined, and the result was that nearly every bank 
under that law was being wound up, in both Illinois and Indiana. 

Our business was to know the value of the security behind each bank, 
and then to purchase of merchants and business men, the issue of these 
banks (which they were compelled to accept, as there was no other suffi- 
cient currency to be had) at such discounts as would warrant us to ho!< 
the bills until by purchase and by exchanging with other brokers for "our 
kind" we had accumulated $ioco, when we could ship the notes to the 
state auditor, and receive in return one of the state bonds deposited by the 
bank. It was a very profitable business. 



*8S* 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS I2? 

The sale of New York exchange was a legitimate business, as most of 
the business paper was made payable in New York, so in order to obtain 
credit in New York brokers took to sorting over the currency which passed 
through their hands, and bank notes of places which could be reached 
without great trouble or expense, were selected. Then the different brok- 
ers made exchanges between themselves, certain brokers taking notes of 
Columbus banks, others those of Louisville, others of the state bank at 
Indianapolis, etc. When enough, say from ten to twenty thousand dol- 
lars, was gathered of the notes of the banks of any one city, a messenger 
was sent with the money and payment in gold coin or New York exchange 
demanded. If the bank redeemed in exchange, then an allowance of $2.50 
per $1000 was made, that being the cost of sending gold by express to 
Xew York. The banks considered this business about like highway rob- 
bery, and put the messengers to all the trouble they could. 

It was not long after I came to the office, that Mr. Wright ordered 
a trip made up for me as a collector, giving me more instruction and advice 
than I could retain in my memory if I had tried for a week. 

The teller fixed up for me $10,000 of notes of the Lawrenceburg branch 
of the State Bank of Indiana. Aly chum, Lyons, went With me to the 
steamer "J acoD Strader" and gave me a little sage advice, as he was an old 
hand at the business. In the morning I found myself at Lawrenceburg, 
and when the bank opened I was the first customer, and told the cashier 
that I would take exchange and allow 2\ per cent, or gold coin. He made no 
reply, but soon a boy brought out a small table and placed it beside the 
wall, and then began bringing out small canvas bags, in all ten. Then he 
cut the strings and poured out in a heap, ten thousand little gold dollars! 
I said nothing, but tried to appear as tho' I was used to having that thing 
happen every day. 

I knew no better than to go to work to prove that their count was 
correct. I counted, and counted, and counted, not stopping for dinner, 
and at the close of banking hours, the boy closed the outside door of the 
bank, and soon after I picked up the last little gold dollar and chucked the 
last bag into my gripsack, and told the cashier that his count was correct. 
I made for the door and asked to be let out. They paid no attention to 
niy wants, but I noticed that the banking office was the front part of a 
dwelling, and that a door opened into that part. So I said nothing more, 
and finally made my way out. 



128 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

"The Cincinnati packet being due about 9 o'clock at night, I, after an 
ample meal which I heartily enjoyed, put my big revolver into the mouth 
of my grip, and made my way to the wharf-boat. Sitting with my grip 
between my feet, and my back to the side of the shack, ! waited for the 
boat, which happened to be on time, and before the office was open in the 
morning I was standing guard over my grip at the door, in Third Street. 

The teller took my bags of gold, and placing Si, 000 in double eagles 
in one pan of the gold scales, he emptied each of my bags in the other, 
and in ten minutes announced my return correct. That trip was the 
beginning of almost a year of constant employment as messenger, all 
over Ohio, Indiana, parts of Kentucky and as far east as Wheeling, Va., 
and Pittsburg, Pa. 

After the reorganization of the State Bank of Indiana, its officers 
decided to try to make redemptions in new silver, redeeming one bill at a 
time. I was sent to South Bend, where the cashier was a Mr. Chapin 
formerly of Greenfield, and the teller was his nephew, an old schoolmate 
of mine. Mr. Wright had sent me to become a resident of Indiana and 
get an appointment as Notary, which I was able to do. I then made up 
an accurate description of five hundred dollars in notes of the South Bend 
branch, attaching thereto a notarial protest as suit in the United States 
courts could not be brought for a less sum than $500. When I presented 
myself at the counter, Mr. Chapin said, "Bring out the new silver, Mar- 
shall." I then told him that Mr. Wright was not willing to receive new 
silver, and of my preparations to protest his notes. He became much 
excited, put on his hat and left the bank, but returned ere long, and said 
that he did not want that question tried on his branch, and ended by tell- 
ing Marshall to give me gold. After some negotiation, I concluded an 
arrangement with him to send his notes by express with $2.50 under 
the straps of each $1,000 and he would remit for them to our credit in 
New York. This saved us all travelling expenses and made Mr. Wright 
very happy. 

I had about this time many trying experiences, but will relate only one 
other. At one of the northern towns of Ohio, was a belligerent cashier 
who sent word down to Cincinnati that he would pound the life out of the 
next "land shark" who presented any of his notes for redemption 
made some stir among the brokers, and soon we found that we had a large 
lot of his notes. I was then book-keeper of the house, but Mr. Wright 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 12c, 

came to me and said that if I would go up and collect those notes, he 
would give me $25. I thought the matter over and finally asked him if he 
was willing Mrs. Wright should go up with me. He gave his consent 
and we started out, reaching our destination in time for dinner. 1 took 
$300 and went down to the bank and, after a little conversation with the 
cashier, purchased a draft on New York. Going back to the hotel 1 in- 
vited Mrs. Wright to do down to the bank with me, which she did, when 
I introduced the pretty little lady to the cashier. I then told him that 
when Mr. Wright learned we were coming up there, he asked me to bring 
along a package of his notes. He could not of course be ungentlemanly 
in the presence of a lady of Mrs. Wright's appearance, and I soon had his 
New York checks for about ten thousand dollars. Mr. Wright was 
pleased with our success, and so was I. 

A Mr. Gregory, formerly mayor of Cincinnati, but financially disabled, 
had been given by Mr. Wright desk room in our bank. He seemed to 
have many r friends who paid him much attention, and in this way I be- 
came acquainted with many men of note, among others Salmon P. Chase, 
then governor of Ohio, and John B. Goff, who was the guest of Mr. 
Wright for three days. During his stay two or three of the older clerks 
dined with him at the Wright home. 

Not long after I arrived in Cincinnati, the Democratic convention met 
there which nominated James Buchanan as president. All my spare time 
was spent at Smith & Nixon's hall and at the Burnett house, where the 
unterrified principally congregated. I happened to be present when a 
Pennsylvania delegate, said to be seven feet tall, was introduced to Stephen 
A. Douglas. Looking up to him, Douglas said, with a most quizzical 
expression upon his jolly face, "Well, my friend, how is it up there? Is 
it cool?" 

There were about 1000 "Fans" present from Pennsylvania and each 
man had a buck's tail in his hat band. 

During the year or more that I made bank collections, I visited all 
the large towns in Indiana and Ohio, as well as W 7 heeling, Va., Pittsburg, 
Penn., Louisville, Ky., and one remarkable trip to Nashville and Memphis, 
Tenn. On this trip I was obliged to go by stage to Nashville, and from 
thence by rail to Stevenson, Tenn., to connect with the road running from 
Chattanooga through Tuscumbia, Ala. to Memphis. This was a short 
Hme before the war, and the stage-coach was filled with red-hot secession- 



130 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ists, who were cursing- the North, especially Massachusetts. I stood it as 
long as I could, then said, "Gentlemen, I am from Massachusetts, and am 
proud of my native state, and it is not very pleasant to hear her cursed 
and maligned." I noticed that a gentleman who said he was from Lynch- 
burg, Ya., who sat next to me, had not joined in the abuse of the North. 
At the next eating station he took me to one side, and told me that I ic 
hot-heads were very angry at me, but that he had headed them off from 
taking any action against me, advising me not to anger them further. 

All was silence when we resumed our trip, but after a time I ventured 
to tell some entertaining stories. The tenseness was at length relieved, 
but I thought of my mother a good many times during our ride. We 
passed over the Great Mammoth Cave and the passing of the heavy coach 
caused at times a distinctly hollow sound. 

On this trip I succeeded in getting into gold coin a large amount of 
the issue of a defunct trust company which had been causing Mr. Wright 
a good deal of anxiety. 

Some time before this, Mr. Wright had dismissed his very competent 
Irish bock-keeper, as his sprees became unbearable, and designated me 
to fill the position, more than doubling my salary, and bidding me make 
the increased compensation begin with the new year, which had passed 
some months before. 

About this time Albert L. Mowry, a native of Leyden, Mass., who 
had made a fortune in government contracts, was admitted as a partner 
in the house, and the branch house of Wright, Mowry & Co., was es- 
tablished in Wall Street, and Frank H. Read (Mrs. Wright's brother who 
was teller and a partner in the house), and I were sent to manage the 
New York concern. After some months Mr. Mowry came to New York. 
and as was his right to do, began to dictate about the management. As 
he did not know the first thing about the business, things were made un- 
comfortable for Read and me. 

I had become acquainted with some parties on the street who were 
intending to start a bank of issue under the laws of Minnesota, and 1 
had many conferences with them regarding the business. Finally they 
hired me to go to St. Paul and look the matter up, and if I so advised 
they would purchase $50,000 Minnesota bonds, and when the bank was 
organized, I could be the cashier and manager. It was then late in No- 
vember and the journey to St. Paul was anything but a pleasure trip, 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 131 

as at that time the railroad ended at Prairie Du Chein. Soon alter arriv- 
ing at St. Paul, I met Nathaniel P. Langford, partner and teller in the 
private banking house of his uncle. Gov. Marshall. Thus was begun a 
friendship which was only interrupted by his recent death. After looking 
the situation over, and consulting my new friend, I advised my principals 
that it would be impossible for us to keep the circulation of our proposed 
bank from being rushed home for redemption, if founded upon bonds 
which were of standard value. My parties made an honorable settlement 
with me and I was left in St. Paul in midwinter without employment. 
Having command of a little capital, I decided to go to St. Louis where 
my brother EL- M. Thompson, after the failure of Jones & Thompson, had 
located and established a successful business. T anxiously awaited tlie 
opening up of the river and the sailing of the first steamer down the 
Mississippi, — the ice in lake Pepin controlling transportation. 

On my arrival at St. Louis I opened an exchange office on Broadway, 
at the market place, which I named "Broadway Bank", and soon had a 
very good business, as I knew the redeeming place and the actual net 
value of nearly everp uncurrent bank note in the country. 

William H. Elliot, a friend from Connecticut, came to see me, and 
having some unemployed capital, proposed my taking him into partner- 
ship. So the firm of Thompson & Elliot became proprietors of the 
"Broadway Bank." Elliot had a friend, located in a nice little country 
town a few miles out from East St. Louis, who had started a bank of 
issue and was doing a much better business, as he thought, than we were ; 
and he urged that we sell out and follow the example of his friend We 
finally went out and heard his friend's story, and as T was always fond 
of country life, I assented, and we soon had a customer for the "Broad- 
way Bank." *- 

We selected Sullivan, 111., for our location, ordered plates engraved 
for the "Pork Packer's Bank", and completed arrangements for the use 
of $50,000. for the purchase of our bonds to be deposited with the 
Illinois state treasurer, in order to get our certified issue of notes, put 
them into circulation and repay our $50,000 loan. 

Just as we thought everything ready, the war cloud gathered, state 
bonds depreciated (in some instances to one half the former value), and 
everything was in such condition that we were compelled to give up the 
niea of starting a new bank of issue. Thompson & Elliot retired from 
business. 



132 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

I returned to Greenfield to await events When it became certain that 
we should have war, at the suggestion of some prominent citizens of 
Greenfield, and with the hacking of W. T. Davis, James S. Grinnell, and 
others, I made application to Governor Andrew for leave to rai.-e an in- 
dependent company of sharp-shooters. As I had been for several year*; 
a member of the Greenfield Guards, I expected to soon receive a permit. 
I waited patiently all through the summer of 1861, and becoming dis- 
gusted, took the train for Chicago the day after Thanksgiving. I had been 
there but few days when T received from Governor Andrew the permit so 
long awaited. As I had received from a friend who was raising a cavalry 
regiment in Wisconsin, an offer of a commission as major. I declined 
the Massachusetts permit. 

While in Chicago I received a dispatch stating that the soldier uiv le 
of the lady whom I expected to marry had been accidentally 
drowned (while fording a river while on a furlough, trying to reach his 
family at or near Metropolis, Ills.), and asking me to go down and see in 
what condition his wife and several small children were left. I immedi- 
ately left for Cairo, and arriving there found the town almost under water. 
and no way to reach Metropolis except to step on to some, transport and 
get off as near the desired port as was possible: as all steamers were 
transporting troops and suopies to Grant's armies on the Cumberland and 
Tennessee rivers, and to Island No. 10 below Cairo. I was wearing a 
large military overcoat, and finding a steamer soon to start for Paducah, 
Ky., I stepped on board and did as the army officers did, and no ques- 
tions were asked. As Metropolis lay between Cairo and Paducah, 1 
thought perhaps I might find a steamer going down the Ohio that would 
stop there. I inquired of every boat lying at Paducah. but got no encour- 
agement. Finally I saw an old negro puttering about a good looking 
dug-out, and as he said it was his, T purchased it of him for five dollar-. 
and laying in some provisions, struck out into the flooded Ohio, to navi- 
gate my boat to Metropolis. Great quantities of floodwood were being 
•swept down by the flood, but I found my craft quite easily managed, and 
was only frightened when the soldiers and passengers on a big steamer 
which swept by me, shouted to know what I was doing out in that wild 
river. However, T made a safe landing at the desired point, and found 
the soldier's family, — the mother in bed with a new-born babe, and cared 



. REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 135 

for by the older children. I found the mayor of the town and made pro- 
vision for the care and comfort of the stricken family ; then, leaving my 
ship to be sold for the family's benefit, I took a transport for Cairo. The 
next morning, seeing an ammunition boat about to start for the gun boats 
at Island No. 10, I stepped on board, finding" but a few army officers as 
passengers. When we approached the gun-boat "Mound City" the Cap- 
tain seemed busy in the office, and a pilot was at the wheel. The officer^ 
and I were out on the hurricane deck as we were rapidly approaching 
Island No. 10, and could without glasses see the rebels running for their 
euns on the river embankment. Tn a few minutes a blue puff of ^moke 
crose, a shell came screeching over our boat, and I felt as if my last day 
had arrived. The captain of our boat came rushing up to the pilot house, 
caught the pilot by his collar and pitched him outside, meanwhile express- 
ing himself as if in anger. It seemed that the pilot had thought he would 
£ive the officers a good view of the Island. 

We were some distance below the "Mound city", which was anchored 
in a "slue" somewhat screened by trees. When our boat swung alongside 
x of her, a coal barge was between us and the ironclad. I thought I would 
like to see them work their guns, and scrambled down onto the coal barge. 
but just then out came an officer and ordered our boat away, saying. 
"We don't want those old boilers alongside of us. with all these shells 
flying around here." So we paddled away up the river and unloaded our 
ammunition at a magazine on the west side. 

After spending almost a day viewing the incompetency of the offi- 
cers commanding the several bodies of troops, I lost all faith in the suc- 
cess of such men, and made up my mind that I would not join the army 
in any position that I was likely to be awarded. The army was working 
under great disadvantages, and little youngsters were commanding good. 
sensible-looking men, who appeared as though they knew a good deal 
more than their commanders. I must say that I was thoroughly disap- 
pointed and disgusted. 

While in St. Louis I joined a club which was organized to pro- 
mote the interests of Edward Bates as a candidate for the presidency of 
the United States. It was natural that we should become personally 
acquainted with our chief and when the Chicago convention met, I went. 
with perhaps a thousand others, to do what we could for our candidate. 

It so happened that under the following circumstances, I had become 



134 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

acquainted with Abraham Lincoln, which fact added to my interest in the 
convention. 

Mr. Wright, partly in order to establish his wife's brother, Henry R. 
Read, in business, had established the Morgan County bank, at Jackson- 
ville, 111. Mr. Read was president of the bank, and I was the nominal 
cashier and signed the bank issue as such, although I never was m Jack- 
sonville. The bank did a very nice business, as it was located in a rich 
county, which shipped much stock and produce east, making much ex- 
change. One large drover made a claim that he had not been given credit 
tor a draft for $4,000 deposited on a certain date. He was very sure '.bout 
the date, and claimed that he gave the draft personally to Mr. Read. Mr. 
Read declared he had never received the described draft, and finally In 1858, 
the drover brought suit against the bank. Mr. Read came to Cincinnati 
to see what he should do about the matter. In comparing notes I hap- 
pened to look in a diary which I kept, and discovered that upon the very 
day on which the drover claimed he personally gave the draft to Mr. 
Read, Mr. Read was at his father's home in Cincinnati, where I boarded, 
and I had luckily made a note of it. Thus I became an important witness 
in the case. 

Mr. Lincoln had been nominated for United States senator m June, 
and on the 17th the great "A house divided against itself" speech was 
made, which attracted the attention of the country. Mr. Read was in- 
structed to go home and retain Abraham Lincoln for the Bank. 

When preparing for the trial of the case, Mr. Lincoln desired to see 
me, and I was sent to Springfield. Upon my arrival there I soon found 
a sign bearing the' names of "Lincoln & Herndon," and climbing a narrow 
stairway between two stores. I found myself before the office door of 
the man whom the people thought had worsted in argument the "Little 
Giant" of the west. With some trepidation. I rapped on the door, and 
heard a voice from inside say "Come in." With no preconceived idea of 
the appearance of the man I was to meet, I was struck with surprise to 
find a man of homely, but attractive face, beneath a shock of unkempt 
hair, tipped back in a chair, with book in hand and feet upon the office 
stove, who awkwardly arose and bade me welcome. I do not remember 
that any other person was in the room. When I made myself and my 
errand known he again took my hand, and his countenance lighted up with 
a pleasant smile when I mentioned the case of the Morgan County Bank; 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 135 

and he said: "Oh that case will not be tried at this term; the fact is, they 
daren't try it." He then questioned me concerning the case, making a 
memorandum on a scrap of paper, regarding my knowledge of Mr. Read's 
presence in Cincinnati at the time the plaintiff asserted that he was at 
the bank, and that he did business with him there. 

Once or twice I rose to take my departure, but Mr. Lincoln seemed 
in no hurry, and we spent some time in conversation. I inquired if, when 
the case came to trial the court would sit in Springfield: he said, "Xo, in 
Jacksonville, the adjoining county on the west." 

He told me of some of his experiences while riding the circuit, and 
inquiring into my business activities heard some amusing incidents which 
had occurred to me while running home to the parent bank, notes of their 
issue, to obtain gold, or New York exchange. In parting, he said that 
if the case came to trial, he should expect me to be present as a witness, 
and that he w r ould let me know of the time and the place. After a little 
conversation with him, one forgot the first impression of face and figure, 
and as his countenance lighted up with a most attractive smile, together 
with his western cordiality and openness of manner, he impressed one as a 
most agreeable gentleman. I left the office somewhat elated at the atten- 
tion shown me, a mere clerk in a broker's office, by a man so celebrated 
as was Mr. Lincoln, the competitor of Stephen A. Douglas. 

The Chicago convention met May 16, i860, the great wigwam being 
crowded to its utmost capacity. Two days were consumed in selecting 
officers and committees, and agreeing upon the essentials of the party 
platform. The vigorous canvassing for votes ran well into the night, 
as it was understood that a ballot would be taken on the morning of 
the third day. The streets near the wigwam were filled with people 
anxious to obtain admittance, which was only allowed on tickets, or a 
gentleman having ladies in his charge. Becoming aware of the practical 
value of a female companion, I w r alked some distance from the wig- 
wam and meeting a lady whom I thought would take no offense accosted 
her, and explained the situation, when she smiled and took me under 
her wing, so I gained the much-desired admittance. 

My state and town pride was flattered that George Ashmun of Spring- 
field, who had studied law in Greenfield, was the presiding officer of this 
great convention. 

I recall the stentorian voice with which the spokesman of the New 



136 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

York delegation announced after every call of the states, "New York 
casts -J2 ballots for William H. Seward." The immense audience was 
hushed as the tellers announced the result of the ballot to be 173} votes 
for Seward, Lincoln following with 102 votes. Then confusion reigned; 
but without great delay the second ballot was taken, the result being that 
Seward had 184^ votes and Lincoln 181. Everyone then felt that the third 
ballot would decide that either the leading man of the east, or the west- 
ern man would be nominated. Thousands of tallies were kept as the 
third call of the states progressed. It was a period of the greatest excite- 
ment, but wonderfully controlled. The result was as declared, Lincoln 
231 i votes, lacking but a vote and a half of being nominated. A moment 
of silence, when Mr. Carter of Ohio arose and announced a change of four 
votes from Mr. Chase to Abraham Lincoln. As he resumed his seat a 
dead silence came upon the vast audience. Then some one realized that 
Abraham Lincoln had been nominated for president of the United State-, 
and a shout went up that announced the fact to the outside multitude 
who could not gain admittance to the wigwam. Cannon boomed from 
the roof of the wigwam, and entire strangers exchanged hearty greetings. 

Not many weeks elapsed before I received word from Mr. Read that 
our case had been set for trial at a certain date, and requested me to 
go to Springfield and see Mr. Lincoln. 

At the appointed time I was in Springfield, and found that the candi- 
date for President had been assigned rooms in the State House. I found 
Mr. Lincoln apparently enjoying himself in an interview with a country 
man, to whom he said as they parted, ''Well Uncle Ben, come in and see 
me when you can, as long as I stay here, always glad to see you." 

When he turned to me, after a moment, he said, extending his hand, 
"Why you are the witness in the Morgan County Bank case." I admitted 
the fact, and said, "Yes, but things have changed, and you will not be 
able to try that case now." "Oh, yes," he said, "I shall see that case 
through, if it is ever tried, but I don't think it ever will be. They don t 
dare try it. It's been put over." 

Just then a man brought in a bushel basket full of mail matter and 
dumped it on the table. Mr. Lincoln said: "See that, what I have to 
go through with. After expressing my hope for his success, and extending 
my hand in farewell, he invited me to go into another room and see his 
collection of cartoons, in which he seemed to take much interest. At 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 137 

last he produced one in which he was pictured as reducing- the body of 
Douglas into rails, which seemed to tickle his fancy. 

I determined that I would, if he was elected and circumstances per- 
mitted, see him inaugurated as President. 

Inauguration day. 1861, found me at 10 o'clock in the morning stand- 
ing with about one hundred persons within about forty feet of the front 
of the stand on the platform from which was to be delivered the ina igural 
address, and by twelve o'clock we were surrounded by thousands and 
nearly suffocated. 

When the president-elect and President Buchanan were seated, I am 
quite sure Mr. Buchanan held Mr. Lincoln's hat while he delivered his 
address. I felt some pride that the military escort of the occasion was 
under the direct command of Major-General John C. Stone, a native ot 
Greenfield. 

The first part of Mr. Lincoln's address was hardly audible but as he 
reached the part where he declared i,t to be his duty and intent to see 
the constitution and laws maintained and enforced in all parts of the 
nation, he spoke with such power that he could be easily heard. 

The succeeding day an immense crowd filled the Capital, anxiously 
awaiting the announcement of the members of the new cabinet. I was 
surprised to find that I personally knew four of the persons named. 

The suit against the Morgan County Bank was never tried. The 
plaintiff was defaulted. 



CHAPTER II. 
A TENDERFOOT IN MONTANA 

Often a thing trivial in itself affects a man's whole after life and 
brings about in his future career, results neither planned by or for him. 

In my own case without doubt, the reading of a sensational story when 
I was yet a boy and attending the district school, affected my whole after 
life. The writer of this wonderful story described, as I then thought in 
most fascinating manner, the capture of a beautiful maid from an Oregon 
emigrant train, by Indians and half breeds, the pursuit and rescue of her 
by her brave and gallant lover, their refuge at a trading post upon the Mis- 
souri, and their return to civilization by the fur trader's boats down that 
stream. 

This exciting story created in me a strong desire to read all the books 
of travel and adventure which I could obtain relating to the great North- 
west, the result being, that I was determined that if curcumstances ever 
permitted, I would visit this wonderful and mysterious country. 

I was, therefore, readily interested, when, after my return to Chicago 
and while on account of the outbreak of the war I hesitated to re-enter 
business, my brother, Hugh M. Thompson, a mineralogist in that city. 
wrote me of the discovery of gold near the head waters of the Missouri 
and the proposed organization of a company there to send out an explor- 
ing party. The St. Louis press, always alert to advance the interests of 
that city, amplified all direct information concerning the discoveries at 
Florence and Oro Fino, and extravagant rumors became, to the news- 
paper men, well established facts. So much interest was created in the 
matter that no trouble was found in organizing a company with means 
sufficient to send our party of a dozen men with ample supplies for a 
years prospecting. I was elected secretary and treasurer of the prospect- 
ing party, and it became my duty to keep an official journal of its trans- 
actions. 

138 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 139 

It had always been the policy of the American Fur company, who 
owned the trading- stations among the fur capturing Indians, to oppose any 
emigration to the fur-producing region, but excitement regarding the dis- 
covery of gold near the headwaters of the Missouri had caused them to 
change their tactics, and they advertised their willingness to take passen- 
gers for the Rocky mountains, in their boats, the Spread Eagle and the 
Key West, and both left St. Louis heavily laden with passengers and 
freight for the mountains. Those sterling old river men, Joseph and John 
La Barge had for years been in command of the Fur company's boats, tak- 
ing supplies up to the trading posts and bringing down the furs, and well 
knew the immense profits in the trade. So an opposition company was or- 
ganized to take a share of the Indian trade. The new firm of La Barge. 
Harkness & Co., advertised the Shreveport. a light stern wheel boat com- 
manded bv Captain John La Barge, and the Emilie, a fine four hundred ton 
side wheeler, under command of Captain Joseph La Barge, for the Mis- 
souri river trip. 

Our party joined the opposition, and we took passage on the Emilie. 
which sailed May 14, 1862, the smaller boat having left late in April. Each 
member paid one hundred dollars for board and accommodations from St 
Louis to Fort Benton. With the exception of horses or mules to haul our 
goods after leaving the boat, we were well equipped for a year's field work. 
With great expectations, we set out upon our journey, willing to face all 
the dangers of the navigation of the "Big Muddy" and all the Favasres 
which inhabited its shores. 

Having thus become a pioneer in the country which is now Montana. 
and having later assisted in the erection of the original territorial govern- 
ment, and having as a member of the first legislature drawn the bill and 
aided in chartering the Historical Society of Montana, I have often been 
urged by its officers, and by my cotemporaries to put in permanent form 
my journal and recollections of the strenuous davs through which we 
passed. 

The personal solicitation of my companion of those days, the late Wil- 
bur F. Sanders, former senator from Montana, has been of much weight 
in overcoming my scruples against making public, in so personal a manner. 
these events of my otherwise prosaic life. 



140 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

In a recent letter from Hon. Nathaniel P. Langford of St. Paul, he 
says "I am very glad that you are putting your pioneer experiences in 
form of preservation, for every item of our early history that can be res- 
cued from oblivion is so much gained to all who may come after us." 

F. M. T. 
Greenfield, Mass. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE MISSOURI RIVER. 

The honor of the first exploration of the tipper Missouri must be cred- 
ited to Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, (Sieur de la Verendrye) who with his 
sons, reached the mauvaises terres (bad lands) in 1742, and passed over to 
the Yellowstone. Verendrye was the son of Lt. Rene Gaultier Varennes 
and Marie Boucher, who were married at Three Rivers, Canada. Sept. 26, 
1667. She was but twelve years old at that time. These French advent- 
urers were several years making- their approach to the Rocky mountains, 
and spent several more in their explorations. The father died on the Sas- 
katchewan in 1749. 

A Scotch half-breed called "Benetsee" from the Red river, whose real 
name was Francois Finlay, has the distinction of having first discovered 
gold in what is now Montana, at Gold creek, in 1852, but to James and 
Granville Stuart 1 belongs the honor of turning the discovery to any prac- 
tical account. Obtaining an outfit at the Salmon river mines in 1858 they 
began sluicing in Pioneer gulch and were successfully operating the mines 
at that place when our party reached that location in July, 1862. The 
Stuart brothers were the pioneer miners of what is now Montana. 

A friend who was a passenger on the Shreveport, which left St. Louis 
April 30th, 1862, gives us the particulars of the journey of that boat up 
the 'Big Muddy." 

A good deal of excitement existed as the Shreveport lay at the St. 
Louis levee, with steam up, ready to begin her journey of thirty-two 
hundred miles up the Missouri, to the Rocky mountains. Captain John 
La Barge is in command, and the boat is loaded down with Indian goods, 
provisions, arms, machinery, mining implements, and a full supply of 
whiskey and store goods. In order to command respect from the wild 
Indians of the upper river, two small brass field pieces grace the forward 
deck. 

When all was ready for the start, a salute was attempted, when by a 

141 



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premature discharge, a member of the crew was severely wounded, and 
♦he poor fellow injured thereby had to be sent to a hospital. Off at last 
amid the shouts and cheers of the multitude, and the waving of hats and 
handkerchiefs of friends left behind. We stopped at the powder magazine 
and took on a full supply of war material. About dark we left the clear 
waters of the Mississippi, and entered the muddy, swirling waters of the 
Missouri, and soon after tied up to the bank, to await day light in which 
to pick our dangerous way among the snaggy river bars and shallows. 
During the night a youthful somnambulist walked overboard. His cries 
roused all the people on the boat, and he was fished out without apparent 
damage, except to his pride. Charles Conoyer met us at St. Charles and 
we took on a lot of corn. While the steamer was being wooded, a young 
fellow-passenger thought he would take a run upon the river bank. Snn n 
the overhanging turf gave way. and the sprinter dropped into the stream 
between the boat and the shore. He crawled out bearing a decidedly 
sheepish appearance. The day was bright and beautiful, as May-day al- 
ways should be, and all felt its cheering influence. We ran until midnight 
and tied up at Miller's landing. W r e have already met the Sunshine. S. B 
Madison, Isabella, and the Russell, bound down the river. As we arrived 
at Lexington near midnight and left at daybreak, the passengers were 
disappointed in not seeing the battle ground where a few months before 
McCulloch with 28,0 : Confederates compelled Col. Mulligan to surrender 
3,000 Union men, and the city. At Kichland we met the Florence at 
the wood yard, and she had as passengers some mountaineers who had 
left Fort Benton April 5th, in a Mackinaw boat. They gave glowing ac- 
counts of the new mines, and we all felt assured of soon having all the gold 
we cared for. 

Near Wyandotte the steamer had to lay up and have the boilers 
cleaned. The passengers built a great bonfire in the woods and spent a 
long evening in games and singing. The next day a broken mud valve 
caused a detention of twelve hours, and we arrived at St. Joseph. Mo., 
May 7th, where we received letters, and took on several passengers. We 
have on board seventy-five cabin passengers and a goodly number of deck 
men, some of whom are working their way. Soon after leaving St. Joseph 
we met the regular packet Omaha, and among her passengers was Mr. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS i 4J 

William Galpin, who for many years had been a prominent man of the 
American Fur company, but who had recently joined the La Barge, Hark- 
ness Co. The two steamers tied up to the bank and Capt. La Barge and 
Mr. Galpin had a short interview. 

At Omaha we took on Mr. Galpin's horse, and two passengers for Fort 
Berthold. Sunday dawned bright and pleasant, and many of the passen- 
gers made a display of clean linen and stcre clothes, but otherwise it was 
the same old story — steaming on up the river. At a stopping place today 
we saw a few Omaha Indians, the first red men we have seen. At Sioux 
city, which is quite a town, Gen. Todd and other prominent men came on 
board and drank to the success of the expedition. We also took on five 
additional passengers. At Yankton, the capital of Dakota Territory, we 
found the legislature in session, and governor Jayne and judges Williston 
and Bliss, and Mr. Trask (editor of the Dakotian) and most of the mem- 
bers of the legislature came on board the steamer, and with common con- 
sent and enthusiasm, joined in drinking success to Capt. La Barge, the 
Shreveport, the new trading company, and the expedition in general. The 
town has its Broadway and its Fifth Avenue, and its great expectations. At 
supper our wag suggested that if practice at the bar would aid in making 
good lawyers, our visitors might be certain of success. 

At the Yankton agency, Dr. Burleigh, the Indian agent visited the 
steamer accompanied by old Strike-the-Ree, Longfoot, and other less noted 
chiefs. We were informed that Smutty-Bear, the head man of the Yank- 
tons, had attended two feasts in one week, a few months before, which 
indiscretion resulted in his death. The agency Indians were anxiously 
awaiting the arrival of their annuities, which were on the Fur companies 
steamers. A party consisting of Capt. Pattee, Lt. Rutan, Mrs. Dr. Bur- 
leigh and her sister, took passage with us for Fort Randall. Arriving at 
that post, we were greeted by the huzzas of the men of the 14th. Iowa 
volunteers of the garrison, and after taking on freight and a supply of 
ice, they gave us a salute, as we steamed away up the crooked river. 

Sunday again, and we spent the most of a cold and rainy day on a 
sand bar in the river, repairing a broken rudder. At Feinsy's island, we 
took on all the wood which the boat could hold, as this is the last place at 
which we expect to find cord wood. Henceforth we must cut our own 



m-¥ 



144 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

fuel. There was a heavy frost this morning and overcoats are in demand. 
About noon today we reached the Big bend, and twenty passengers landed 
to walk across the four miles of hills, while the steamer took its forty- 
mile round-a-bout course to meet them. The hunters had hardly got out 
of hailing distance when the officers in the wheel house, discovered a herd 
of buffalo quietly feeding in a hollow not a mile from the straggling foot- 
men. It was eleven o'clock at night before the Shreveport reached the 
camp fire of the hunters, who had surrounded and captured a solitarv 
buffalo calf, each man of the party claiming that he "did it.'' It is now the 
20th of May, and we are getting into a country alive with game. While 
the boat was wooding, some passenger killed another buffalo calf, which 
we find is very savory meat. 

It was very cold, wet, and disagreeable when we arrived opposite Fort 
Pierre, a trading station. The water was too shallow near the fort to 
permit the boat to land near the Indian village. The boat's clerk and an 
interpreter went over in the yawl, while the expectant Indians lined the 
shore, dressed in their bright and varied costumes, giving a very pleasing 
effect. They found the camp under great excitement, as a few days before, 
a war party of Rees had killed their herdsman and stolen twenty horses. 
The body of the dead warrior was wrapped in a robe and placed on a raised 
scaffold, while the squaws with slashed and bleeding legs and arms wailed 
forth their tribute to the virtues and courage of the dead warrior. The 
braves left the mourning to the squaws, while they daubed their faces and 
bodies with vermillion and lamp-black, and made preparation to take the 
war path and avenge their losses. The whites at the trading post, as well 
as the Indians, had for a long time been expecting the arrival of the com- 
pany stores, and in order to convince the Indians that there was no de- 
ception, and prevent any difficulty, the chiefs, Big Head, Black Eye, 
White Bear and an interpreter, were invited to cross over to the Shreve- 
port and partake of hospitalities. Taking with them the father of the dead 
warrior, they entered the boat, and the clerk said that he felt of his scalp 
several times in crossing, to see if it was in place. The bereaved father 
was covered from head to foot with clay, as a sign of mourning, and if dirt 
is a symbol of grief, he must have been inconsolable. 

Seated in the steamer's cabin around Capt. La Barge, each in turn 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 145 

took a whif of smoke from the pipe of peace, and then m the sweet and 
melifluous accents peculiar to the race, announced with the usual amount 
of verbiage that they were glad to see us, that they were glad that there- 
was to be opposition to the Fur company, that they had abundance of 
robes which they wished to trade for provisions and ammunition. They 
concluded their talk through Beaure as interpreter, by shaking the hand 
of the Captain, calling him "Father." He in duty bound, made them the 
usual presents of tobacco and trinkets. These noble men of the plains 
looked at the peace offering with critical eyes, and then like Oliver Twist, 
asked for more; they could not afford to shake hands and go through with 
all this palaver so cheaply as that. But they didn't get any more, and 
were sent back in the yawl and wc sailed on, happy to be relieved of 
them. We landed four passengers who intended to hunt all night and get 
on board before we sailed in the morning. The boat laid up at the mouth 
of the Cheyenne river, and our hunters came up having secured three ante- 
lopes and one buffalo. Plenty of fresh meat for the present. 

In the morning we met a Mackinaw boat commanded by Jeff. Smith, 
from Fort Benton loaded with robes. They were out of provisions which 
the boat furnished them w r ith. They told us of the approach of a war 
party of Rees, going down to attack the Yankton Sioux, again. Some of 
our rebel sympathisers advised the party in the boat to be careful how they 
shouted for "Jeff" unless they wished to get into some military prison 
down the river. Soon after supper we met the Sioux war party, in eight 
bull-boats. They fired a salute as a sign of peace and dextrously brought 
their rude boat along side the steamer, and all came on board. Several pas- 
sengers thinking that we were attacked, were sprawled upon the cabin floor 
for safety from any stray shots. When they learned the true state of af- 
fairs, they loudly disclaimed being frightened, but did not like the careless 
manner in which the red-skins managed their guns. Red Fox, the Ree 
chief, said that the Sioux had stolen many of their horses, and he was 
going down to get even with them. They went through with the usual 
palaver with Capt. La Barge, who told them of the great benefit of the op- 
position company, gave them some presents, and they expressed their sat- 
isfaction by joining in a dance in the cabin. We improve the opportunity 
to study naval architecture as represented by Bull-boats. 



146 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

A round crate of green willows is constructed like the frame work of 
a big basket, with a rim around the top formed by weaving in the pliable 
tops of the willows. Over this frame is tightly drawn a whole buffalo 
skin, flesh side out, which is carefully turned in at the top and securely 
fastened with sinews, thus forming a water-tight bowl, probably just like 
the one in which mother Goose's "three wise men of Gotham" went to sea 
in. When thoroughly dry these are very light and serviceable, and large- 
ones will carry three men. When on a horse stealing expedition the In- 
dians take the greatest caution, lying concealed in the day time, and travel- 
ling by night. They take great risks, as if they are not successful in 
getting horses they are obliged to take the foot-path home. 

Twenty-five days out finds us at Cannon Ball river, so named because 
of numberless perfectly round stones found in the stream, formed by ac- 
tion of the water upon a curious formation of rock. At deserted old Fort 
Clark, once the seat of the Mandans, with whom Lewis and Clark spent 
the winter of 1803-4 we pulled down one or two deserted cabins and took 
them on board for fuel. We are meeting the carcasses of many dead 
buffalo floating down the stream with the floodwood, they having been 
drowned while trying to swim the river. We were favored with the com- 
pany of another war party of Rees going down to entertain the Sioux 
near Yankton. They drank many cups of strong coffee, and one bold 
warrior complained of not feeling very well and deserting his compan- 
ions, remained on board the steamer. While tied up for the night a few 
miles below Fort Berthold, three more bull boats under the command of a 
chief named Napoleon, took up their quarters with us. Napoleon was a 
fine looking and appearing fellow, dressed in a white shirt and straw hat, 
and had with him his son, Napoleon, Jr., a fine specimen of uncultivated 
genus homo. This party with their boats remained on the steamer until we 
reached Berthold, where upon our arrival we found a great gathering of 
Indians of many different tribes assembled to do us honor. Many of the 
big men came on board, held a pow-wow, drank' immense quantities of 
coffee, and smoked the pipe of peace. The people were entirely out of 
coffee and sugar, and we left a large stock to be traded for. Many Indians 
crowded on board to cross the river to the Ree village, where we were 
compelled to go through the usual performance, and as we at last re- 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 147 

sumed our journey, were thankful that we were not likely to see any 
more Indians until we reached Fort Union. 

The river is rising very fast and is full of driftwood. Game of many 
varieties is very plentiful and we are feasting upon antelope, venison, 
buffalo hump and tongue, beaver tail, catfish, whitefish and other delica- 
cies of the country and season. June 2nd, we ran into vast numbers of 
buffalo swimming across the river. There was much excitement and 
every man on board killed a buffalo, or said that he had; but as onlv three 
were secured, some people must have been mistaken. That night we tied 
up at the mouth of the Yellowstone. Undoubtedly some time in the future 
here will be a large city. The location is all that could be desired, and 
happy would be the man who knew just where to locate town lots. Before 
breakfast we tied up at Fort Union, finding but few Indians at this post. 
We were soon on our way up the river, Fort Benton being but nine hun- 
dred miles distant. At old Fort Stewart we found Lemon & Larpenter, 
the traders, in dire distress. They had a Mackinaw boat all loaded with 
furs to send down the river. They had been having hard lines ; had lost 
all their stock and were entirely out of provision. Said they had been 
living of late on boiled hides and other delicacies of like nature. Capt. 
La Barge left them a temporary supply, which they thankfully received. 
A few r miles above, we passed the wreckage of the Fur company steamer 
Chippewa, which burned last year, together with the supplies for the upper 
fort. At Fort Charles, a new post built by the Fur company in 1861, we 
lay all day, w r aiting for the companion steamer, the Emilie. Our men cut 
and piled a large lot of wood on the bank of the river, for the use of the 
boats. Finding a large pair of elk horns, some of our men nailed them to 
a tree and put up a notice that the wood was for the Emilie, and that the 
place w r as "Elkhorn Landing." 

The bright and beautiful Sabbath morning of June 8th, finds us far 
away from any sanctuary but the noble cottonwoods, which are "God's 
first temples, not made with human hands." The sanctity of the day meets 
with due respect from the passengers, and many of them who never trou- 
ble themselves about attending divine service when at home, would be 
very glad to listen to even a dull sermon today. Xo signs of the Emilie, 
and we push on up a beautiful river now enshrined in most wonderful 



148 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

scenery. The indescribable bluffs and hills which have hemmed US in for 
several days have receded from the immediate banks, and we have beauti- 
ful green sloping- banks between which runs a swift flowing stream of 
clear water, and the days are warm and pleasant. The eternal hills are 
still within sight and more mountainous in their aspect, assuring US that 
we are gradually nearing the end of our journey, the mountains. 

This morning we discovered a mother elk and her kid swimming the 
river. We secured the young one alive, and it will make a fine pet. The 
scenery daily grows in beauty. Of late we have been steaming southerly. 
and the season seems much more advanced. Wild roses are in bloom. 
goose-berries are ripe, and every green thing bears evidence of a warmer 
clime. The river grows more and more narrow and flows with more rapid 
current, but the water is clear and deep, and no one would suspect that it 
is a portion of the "Big Muddy." The hill tops are decked with pines, 
which largely cover their native ugliness. Elk, deer, buffalo and antelope 
are in abundance, and now and then a huge grizzly shows his form, or a 
mountain sheep springs nimbly up the mountain side. Those outcasts of 
creation, the sneaking wolves, are seen everywhere, and follow closely 
after every herd of buffalo seeking the calves or the wounded. We passed 
one a few days since floating down the river on the carcass of a dead 
buffalo, Robinson Crusoe like, "he was monarch of all he surveved." 

We have lost our beautiful scenery and have entered into the wauvaises 
terres or 'bad lands'. The river makes its winding way through grim and 
barren hills circling under bold bluffs whose stained and broken fronts 
show the remains of layers of coal burned out in ages past. The side can- 
ons support stunted pines, and luxuriant prickly pears which produce 
wax-like flowers both'crimson and white. The river is high and it is with 
difficulty we are able to stem the tide. After a hard struggle we brought 
up at the foot of Bird's rapids, where we were compelled to cordelle up the 
yawl containing an anchor which was planted in the river above the falls. 
and from it a line was attached to a keg which floated to the steamer, and 
by the aid of the "nigger" engine she slowly made her way over the rush- 
ing waters. It was a hard job, and to add to its discomforts it rained 
heavily and was very cold and disagreeable weather. The Captain having 
his fighting spirit up, steamed on twelve miles to Dauphin's rapids and 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 149 

pulled over them in the same manner. While resting: after these heavy 
labors, a Mackinaw boat hove in sight containing - men from Captain John 
Mullan's command, at Bitter Root valley. They declared that expe- 
rienced miners were taking out from an ounce to an ounce and a half per 
day, which was elating news to us. 

Sunday, June 15th was a cold rainy day, and we lay at the foot of Dead 
Man's rapids, dreading the day's work. All at once a mighty yell went 
up, as we heard the boom of cannon, and we saw the Fmilic with col- 
ors flying come around the point below. Her pilot had seen the smoke of 
the Shreveport far ahead. 



CHAPTER II. 
ON THE EMILIE. 

The fine four hundred ton side wheel steamer, EMILIE, Captain Jos- 
eph La Barge, sailed from St. Louis Wednesday. May 14th, 1862, hound 
for the extreme head of navigation upon the Missouri river. Her com- 
mander had for years heen in charge of boats of the American Fur com- 
pany, and knew all the freaks and fancies of that changeable stream, and 
being financially interested in the result of his undertaking, we felt that 
we were setting out upon our long voyage under most encouraging condi- 
tions. It was near four o'clock in the afternoon before the last pa^-senger 
and the last dray load of freight, came on board. The levee was crowded 
with friends of the one hundred and fifty pa-sengers on the boat, and the 
idlers of the city had gathered in great numbers, as the press had given 
much publicity to the novel undertaking. Amid the cheers of the people, 
the booming of cannon, the waving of hats and handkerchiefs, the Emilie 
slowly moved out into the Mississippi, and began her three thousand 
mile trip. 

The steamer carried three hundred tons of Indian goods, general mer- 
chandise, miners tools, implements and provisions, wagons, horses and 
mules, and generally, things which were thought to be most desirable in 
opening up a new country. The exploring party of The American Exploit- 
ing and Mineral Company, consisted of Thomas C. Willard. George P. 
King, Henry King, Henry C. Lynch. Edward H. Mead, Henry B. Bryan, 
Frank R. Madison, Prof. Wm. H. Bell, Henry B. Watkins, George McLa- 
gan, Wm. C. Gould, and Francis M. Thompson. Mr. Gould was accompan- 
ied by his wife. We had a complete mining outfit, a year's supply of cloth- 
ing and provisions, a good Studebaker wagon, two sets of double harness, 
.but no horses or mules. 

There were several smaller parties on the steamer, that of Chapman, 
Clow and Jones being admirably fitted out, and they were wise enough to 
take four good mules along with them. Col. Hunkins also had a good 

150 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 151 

team with him. The trip along the lower river was not of unusual inter- 
est, excepting that the burned and ruined buildings along the river hanks 
brought altogether too forcibly to mind, the terrible contest in which the 
government was engaged for the preservation of the union. As secretary 
of the expedition I kept an official diary of the trip, but as its publication 
would be largely a repetition of the account already given of the trip of 
our consort, the Shreveport, its insertion is omitted. 

Whenever necessity required, the Emilie would run her nose into the 
bank at some wood yard, and off would file forty or fifty roustabouts, 
dressed in fancy shirts of rainbow hues, which are destined ere long to 
charm the eye of many a squaw, and as they toted on board huge back- 
loads of wood, pop ! pop ! would go the revolvers and rifles of the valorous 
would-be hunters and miners, who shot at every conceivable object which 
presented itself as a target. Wood was very- scarce, and the price seemed 
high, but as the men were largely in the rebel or the Union armies, there 
was no relief. The situation reminded me of a story of early days on the 
Ohio river, when wild cat money was used as currency, the larger portion 
being almost worthless. The captain of an Ohio river boat seeing a fine 
lot of wood on the river bank, hailed the supposed proprietor; "Is that 
wood for sale?" "Yes!" "How much a cord?" The granger asked "What 
ye going to pay in?" "Oh! Gallipolis money!" "Then it's cord for 
cord !" We came to St. Joseph on Sunday morning, and the boom of our 
cannon brought to the levee so many people that but few could ha\e been 
left in attendance at divine service. Another salute was given as we 
steamed up the river. 

At Omaha we found encamped about eighty teams, the owners being 
bound overland to Oregon and Washington territories. We are told that 
fifteen hundred teams have already crossed the river, bound for the new 
mines. We learn that the Fur company steamer is but two days ahead of 
us, and we feel certain to overtake her very soon. At a wooding place on 
the Iowa side of the river, I found in the woods a log house, the owner of 
which told me he was from Virginia. He said that he had never seen a 
railroad engine, but that a telegraph line did once overtake him, but he 
sold out and moved away. He "reckoned" that if the gold mines paid, he 



152 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

would have to move on; too many people for him; they scared all the 
game. 

We stopped at the Omaha Indian agency— Blackbird landing— a beau- 
tiful place. Many mounted Indians dressed in all their finery, came can- 
tering down to the boat, but having no interpreter we could not talk with 
them. There are beautiful bluffs on the Nebraska side, and upon the very 
highest point, is the grave of the great chief Black Bird. He died in 180. 
and was buried sitting upright upon his horse. He was held in the utmost 
awe by his nation, for it was observed that he could foretell the approach- 
ing death of any member of the tribe without fail. The secret of his power 
lay in a quantity of arsenic supplied to him by a merciless trader. 

At another wooding place, I learned from the old lady occupying the 
woodman's cabin, that they were from Marlow, New Hampshire. She said 
that the Indians made them no trouble, but that wolves and wild cats 
played havoc with their small stock. Not far below Sioux city we saw on 
the Iowa side of the river, standing upon a steep bluff, a post placed there 
to to mark the spot where Sergeant Floyd of Lewis and Clark's expedi- 
tion was buried. [Patriotic citizens and the state of Iowa, have recently 
erected a fine monument to his memory. We found about 2200 Indians at 
the Yankton Sioux agency.] The government agent, Mr. Hedges, from 
Cincinnati was our fellow passenger and we had on board a large lot of 
goods for his Indians. Here, for the first time, I saw the progeny of a 
negro and an Indian squaw, a most interesting specimen of humanity. 
The agent informed me that the head chief of the Indians had recently 
died, and that while he was very sick he had sent for him, and asked that he 
might be buried like a Christian. The chief's son was away on a war ex- 
pedition when his father died, and the agent, true to his promise had a 
good casket prepared for the burial of the chief and his remains received 
Christian burial. A few weeks after, the son returned and immediately 
had his father's remains disinterred, and wrapping the body in skins and 
a buffalo robe, he placed them upon a high scaffold which he had prepared, 
according to the custom of the tribe. At Fort Randall we were welcomed 
by the garrison composed of Iowa volunteers. Here the government had a 
good steam saw mill and a grist mill in operation. We crossed the river 
and tied up for the night near an encampment of one hundred lodges of 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 153 

Sioux. Madison Carr, a half breed, and claiming to be a sub-chief of these 
Indians had been a passenger on the Emilie, and he visited many of the 
lodges with us. I greatly amused the little Indian boys by playing on a 
big jews-harp, and finally got a number to dance to my music. The men 
were finely formed, strong and lusty, and were clothed with breech-cloth 
and a robe thrown over their shoulders, so arranged as to show any sear< 
they had received in battle. The squaws wore cloth or skin shirts and 
leggins, sometimes ornamented with porcupine quills, or beads, or both. 
I was surprised and somewhat disappointed not to find among the many 
whom I saw, a single squaw who could lay any claim to even passable 
good looks. We encountered many severe wind storms and during the trip 
were several times compelled to tie up to escape danger of being wrecked 
During one storm our old dog Jack was so frightened that we had to take 
him into our state room in order to pacify him. The river is full of small 
islands and it was very difficult to decide which was the proper channel to 
undertake to ascend, and after running up a certain one for an hour, it 
was frequently necessary to return and try another. High bluffs along 
the river abound, barren and streaked with burned out layers of coal. I 
climbed to the top of a high barren bluff, only to find other similar ones 
beyond of greater height. At the "great bend" fifty bold pioneers took to 
the cut off, the captain assuring us that he would meet us by sunset. A 
stray Indian went along, and after a four-mile march we came to the river 
without seeing so much as a jack-rabbit for our pains. Xo boat appeared 
and building a floodwood fire we spent a cold, hungry, miserable night. 
Many were frightened because the Indian abandoned the camp, he evid- 
ently fearing that our big fire would attract hostile Indians. On the fertile 
bottom across the river, we saw a large herd of wild ponies, and we picked 
up many fine specimens of fossil fishes. When the Emilie came to us 
about nine o'clock in the morning, she was enthusiastically greeted by a 
hungry set of explorers. She had been lying on a sand bar the greater 
part of the night. 

Just above old Fort Medicine, of which nothing remained but an old 
chimney and one or two cabins nearly undermined by the falling banks of 
the river, we ran on a sand bar at the head of an island, and after getting 
free we were obliged to tie up for the night. Jn the morning another chute 



■¥^ ••' 



154 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

was tried with no better success. The captain was only too glad to run 
ashore and let forty passengers and all the live stock disembark to march 
twelve miles across a neck of land to a point opposite Fort Pierre. J where 
the boat would land and take us on board. Each man took his gun and 
started. I thought that it would be a tine thing to ride one of the big 
mules. Catching him and fixing the halter he wore into a kind of bridle, 
I mounted, and my steed was off in a moment to join his mate who had 
got some distance ahead. I had no control over him whatever, but thought 
I could ride as fast as he could run. The grass was quite high on the river 
bottom, and unexpectedly to the mule as well as myself, we came to the 
edge of a deep cut in the sod and the mule stopped as suddenly as though 
dead, while his rider still continued his journey for many feet, rolling over 
and over as he struck the turf. The result to the rider was a badly sprained 
ankle, and to the mule freedom and the gleeful greeting of his mate. I 
turned to look for the steamer, but she had gone down the river to hunt 
up a new channel. Nothing remained for me but to hobble the twelve 
miles to the appointed rendezvous. Using my rifle as a crutch, I made the 
painful journey lagging far behind my companions. The people at Fort 
Pierre having discovered us, we waved peace signals, and a boat came 
over in which was La Troube, a half breed, and the big Indians Bare-foot. 
Starving-man Bear that surprises, Dirty-leg, Man-who-sits-high-in-the- 
tree, and another whose name I have forgotten. When they found 
that w r e were from the Emilie, LaTroube said they would go down and 
meet her. All my companions insisted that I should go with them that I 
might get treatment for my ankle which was giving me intense pain. Join- 
ing the Sioux party we struck across the river and kept under the right 
bank, only one pair of oars being worked, and all the other Indians sitting 
with their guns cocked and their sharp eyes watching for a war party of 
Rees who had a day or two before killed one of their men and stolen about 
twenty horses. I hardly enjoyed the situation, and was heartily glad to 
discover the lights burning on the Emilie, which was several miles below 
where she had been when we left her. 

It had begun to rain, and our humane captain ordered a boat's crew to 
take blankets and provisions and find the hungry, tentless, passengers at 
"starvation camp" but the boat returned about three o'clock in the morning 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 155 

having been unable to discover their location. The Emilic had go6& luck 
in the morning in finding a way over the shoals, and we were most warmlv 
received by our starving comrades. Taking them on, we crossed over to 
Fort Pierre, a Fur company post, where we found about r6oo Indians o( 
mixed Sioux tribes. While lying here our old dog Jack pitched on to m 
Indian cur which ventured on board the boat, and during the melee Cap- 
tain La Barge got badly bitten, and in his rage he pitched the old dog 
overboard and shot at him as he swam, but he reached the shore r\nd prob- 
ably had many stout battles before he established himself as a Sioux leader. 

The next day buffalo were discovered, and one came slowly down to 
the river and plunged in, and was nearly half across the river before the 
boat came up with him. The fusilade was enormous and each 'man behind 
the gun' claimed that his was the fatal shot. Being in want of meat, the 
captain tied up and by the help of the "nigger" the huge beast was hoisted 
on board. Only seven shots had struck the brute among the hundreds 
which were fired. The careless shooting resulted in the calling of a mass 
meeting of the passengers and the choice of Captain Galpin to enforce 
more safe and sane conditions. Sundays were passed in comparative quiet. 
and the passengers were apparently generally interested in religious ser- 
vices held by Rev. John Francis, a Welsh preacher of great merit, who was 
a fellow passenger, and well adapted to make himself popular with a mixed 
assembly, like that gathered on the Emilie. 

One day we discovered on the river bank ahead, a large party of In- 
dians, who desired the boat to stop and take them on board. The captain 
considering that we were two hundred miles from any aid in case of trou- 
ble, kept on his way. The Indians showed their displeasure by aiming 
their guns at us and brandishing their tomahawks, but when they qw the 
men getting the cannons ready for action, they showed peace sicrnaR 
They may wreak their vengeance upon some other party not so well pre- 
pared to resist their demands. Prof. Bell of our party killed an elk which 
was swimming the river, and the boat was stopped to take this addition tn 
our larder on board. 

June 4th, we were awakened at day-light by the cry. "buffalo!" "buf- 
falo!" and immediately the boat ran into a herd containing hundreds swim- 
ming the river. The water seemed alive with them, old bulls, cows, and 



156 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

calves swimming in the eddy formed by tlie body of their mother, and the 
wheels of the steamer had to be stopped, lest the paddles be broken on the 
norns of the animals. The shooting was kept under control, and only 
seven were killed, four of which were secured and hoisted on board. A 
yearling was taken on board alive, but proved so full of fight, that the 
captain fearing that some person would be hurt by it, had it butchered. Nu- 
merous wolves followed the herd and furnished legitimate targets for 
the marksmen. At old Fort Clark we pulled down two of the deserted 
houses for fuel. There were se\eral large circular pole and dirt houses 
still standing, each large enough to hold twenty or thirty Indians and four 
or "five horses. Nearly the whole nation of the Mandans were swept away 
by smallpox a few years since. The elevated platforms where the dear! 
had been buried had rotted away, and skulls and other bones lay scattered 
about the prairie. 

• At Fort Berthold 3 we overtook the Fur company boat. Spread Eagle. on 
which was Mr. Reed the Indian agent, to the upper river tribes. He was 
holding a grand council, which I attended and heard an impassioned speech 
from Running Antelope, a famous Indian orator. He stoutly objected to 
having the boats take arms, ammunition, and supplies, to the upper Indians 
who came down and made war upon the lower tribes. A half breed. Char- 
lie, leaves us here and is to go overland to the Milk river, and gather in 
a lot of Indian ponies on the way, to trade to the tenderfeet. On June 6th. 
the Spread Eagle and her companion, the Key West, and the Emilie all 
lay together at night. The Fur Company boats had killed but one buffalo 
and we supplied them with meat. Indians, squaws and bucks, on our boat 
ate the raw livers and unborn fawn of elk and deer, and men familiar with 
their habits declare- that when short of meat they leave absolutely nothing 
but skin and bones of such game as they may secure. 

There is much jealousy between the two fur companies, the American 
Fur company feeling that La Barge Harkness & Co., are intruding upon 
their established rights. Not much respect for law exists in these wild re- 
gions, and some are apprehending serious trouble. The feeling culmin- 
ated to-day. The Spread Eagle got away a few minutes before the Emilie. 
which was followed by the Key West. After running a few miles the Emi- 
lie passed the Spread Eagle, but running on to a sand bar, some time was 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS i 5/ 

lost, and she again had to fall behind her rival. Going over to the side of 
the river where the Spread Eagle was, the Emilie putting on full speed 
soon came along side, and the two boats kept side by side for a mile or 
more, but reaching a bend in the river favorable for the Spread Eagle for 
"Buzzard" as we called her) she forged ahead, but the Fmilie kept her 
nose close to the stern of the S. E. She could not run as fast as the Emi- 
lie, and her pilot knew it, so to keep her in the rear, the channel being nar- 
row, he kept his boat running in a zig-zag course so as to occupy the chan- 
nel. At last Capt. La Barge seeing a chance pushed the Emilie alon^ side 
the Spread Eagle, when the pilot of that boat turned her nose against the 
Emilie and nearly crowded her on shore. Capt. La Barge swore a big 
French oath and grasping his rifle aimed it at the offending pilot's head, 
but his son caught it from him, the Emilie's wheels stopped and the Spread 
Eagle had the river for a short time. The Emilie ran until later in the 
evening and we saw no more of the Spread Eagle until we had been some 
time at Fort Benton. Reports are rife that Fur company men have said 
that the Emilie would be sunk before she reached Fort P.enton. The French 
blood of Captain La Barge took fire, and he declared that he would fill the 
next man with buck shot, who undertook to wreck his boat. Thousands 
of buffalo are to be seen upon the river banks and crossing from one side 
to the other. The wheels are often stopped out of pity for the beasts a- 
well as to save injury to the boat. A huge grizzly, awkwardly ambled 
away from the river bank, and an eagle surveyed us from her nest in the 
Vermillion cliffs. 

June 7th we met a Mackinaw boat containing ten men and a large lot 
of furs. The crew were anxious for war news, having heard nothing for a 
year. Three days later we passed the month of the Yellowstone and tied 
up at Fort Union. The post has done but little trading for a year, and 
only four Indians were present at the camp. While here, Mr. Francis held 
another of his popular services. At the mouth of Milk river. Mr. Galpin 
and four others with five horses, two mules and a wagon, left the steamer 
to drive 275 miles to Fort Benton. They hope to meet Indians and trade 
for ponies to sell to the to be stranded passengers. 

One day a nice looking log cabin was discovered on the southerly side 
of the river, and landing, it was found to be the home of Dubois, a French- 



158 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

man noted as an expert hunter. 4 Captain T.a Bane purchased all his furs 

and taking him, his squaw, papoose, horse?, cart, and a buffalo calf on 
board steamed on up the river. He had killed during the winter eleven 
hundred wolves by poison, and bear, beaver, buffalo, elk and deer in large 
numbers. I killed a buffalo which was swimming in the river, and others 
some on the shore. The one I shot drifted away down the river, but n^ 
soon as the boat struck the river bank, a young Indian who was on hoard. 
leaped ashore and running down the stream, jumped in and was soon on 
the floating carcass, and lashed it to some overhanging brush. Soon after 
the steamer dropped down the stream and took both the dead buffalo and 
the living Indian on board. Just above, we came upon five more, swim- 
ming the river, one of which was wounded before reaching the river bank. 
but still able to run as fast as a horse. As the steamer turned to the ^hore 
a stag hound owned by a passenger was let loose, and away he went after 
the frightened buffalo and soon had him at bay. Some person killed the 
monster with a revolver, and a long line was brought from the boat and the 
carcass was snaked by willing men to the boat. 

As we sailed up the never-ending river, one day excitement arose. 
caused by some sharp-eyed tenderfoot sighting a bear swimming the 
stream far ahead of the boat. A fusilade began and the supposed bear 
made for the shore, bullets dropping all around him in the river. Reach- 
ing the shore as he rose from the water the bear was discovered to be a 
buffalo calf. His lucky escape was greeted with shouts and cheers, while 
his discoverer felt exceedingly small. The weather for the last few days 
has been horrid, wet, and cold. Venison has been plenty for some days 
past, an agreeable change from buffalo hump and steak. An epidemic of 
fishing has struck the passengers, and some fished all night, catching over 
300 pounds. 

A Mackinaw boat 5 which passed down the river reported the Shrevc- 
port about fifty miles ahead of us. The hills have closed down upon the 
river and the magnificent bluffs are several hundred feet in height. The 
clear and sparkling water runs very swiftly, and small rapids are met at 
every turn. We reached the first important rapids near night, and the Emi- 
lie trembling under the heavy head of steam, bravely entered the fight. 
For a half hour at a time she hardlv gained a foot in her progress but by 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 159 

tne free use of tar and rosin under her boilers she finally succeeded in 
passing over the crest of the fall, the victory being cheered by all on board. 
Tying up for the night ten miles above the rapid some forty or fifty of 
the passengers climbed to the top of one of the high hills. The view from 
the summit was marvelous, but no snowy mountains could be seen. The 
winding river looked like a canal. 

Sunday morning the 15th of June, the good ship Emilie worked her 
way over the second rapids before her passengers were up, and soon after 
breakfast the pilot announced that he saw the smoke of the Shreveport. 
Cheers broke forth from the weary passengers, and the cannon was fired 
to give notice of our approach. The Shreveport was lying at the foot of 
the third rapids, and when the Emilie came alongside, mingled greetings, 
hootings, howlings. and cannon firing, ended in a general pow-wow. After 
an hour of visiting, preparations were made for getting the boats over the 
rapids. The steamers lay at the foot of a long steep sliding bank with a 
buffalo trail running above the river which was several inches deep with 
mud, and a cold rain was adding to disagreeable conditions. Without 
complaint, in order to lighten the boat, at least 200 men took to the path at 
the captain's request, and standing in the mud and rain we watched the 
efforts made to run the rapids. Using resin and pitch, the smoke from 
w r hich belched forth from the tall funnels of the Emilie, she made satis- 
factory progress until she reached the very swiftest part, then wavered and 
fell back. By signs we finally induced the pilot to work the boat over to- 
ward us and to throw us a line, which strategy having been accomplished, 
the half frozen men easily cordelled the boat over the crest into stiller 
water. The Emilie then dropped an anchor and attaching a long line to a 
keg, let it float down to the Shreveport, Avhich came over by the aid of 
her "nigger" engine. The same tactics were repeated at the dreaded "Dead 
Man's Rapids" and again repeated the next day at the rapids a mile or two 
below Fort Benton. That evening, Mr. Francis preached to us. his appro- 
priate theme being "Faith and Works." We were a sorry looking lot of 
first-class pasengers when we filed on board the boats, after playing canal 
horse in the rain and mud. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon of June 17th, 1862, the Emilie and 
the Shreveport ran their noses upon the bank of the Missouri at Fort Ben- 



160 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ton, the first steamers ever reaching that point. A hundred Indians on 
horseback had come down to meet us, when our boats were discovered 
below the rapids, and riding along the river bank escorted us to the land- 
ing. The young bucks, gaily decked out and bedaubed with ochre and 
lampblack, exhibited masterly feats of horseman-ship, and the old battle- 
scarred warriors rode along in conscious dignity. After an hour's stop at 
Benton, the Emilie moved up above the ruins of old Fort Campbell, 
(perhaps a mile above the first landing,) and began to unload her cargo. 
Here La Barge, Harkness & Co., propose to build a trading house, the 
adobe walls of old Fort Campbell being a safe place of retreat, in case of 
hostile attack. 

Among the passengers who made the trip with no expectation of re- 
maining in the country, was Chancellor Hoyt, the honored chief of the 
Washington University of St. Louis. Accompanied by his good wife, he 
made the excursion by the advice of his physician, seeking rest for an 
overworked body and brain. In order to add to their comfort. Captain 
La Barge erected a temporary partition across the rear of the long cabin. 
so as to secure privacy and abundant room for his distinguished guests. 
President Hoyt gave his impressions of the long journey in a letter to the 
St. Louis Democrat, which was as follows : — 

TRIP TO THE HEAD WATERS OF THE MISSOURI. 

Editors Missouri Democrat: — 

A voyage in a first-class steamer of three thousand one hundred mile* 
on one of the branches of an American river, is an event in the history of 
navigation of sufficient interest, perhaps, to justify us in saying a few 
words about it in the Democrat. 

OUR BOAT, 

The Emilie, of four hundred tons burthen by measurement, and drawing 
about three and a half feet of water, is the first side-wheel steamer which 
ever found its way to the head waters of the Missouri. She carried up 
eighty-five cabin passengers at one hundred dollars per head, and fifty-three 
on deck, at a rate which we did not learn, together with three hundred 
tons of freight at ten cents per pound. The boat must have paid for itselt. 
and will henceforth "run on velvet." 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 16. 

The Captain, Joseph La Barge, is a skillful navigator and a courteous 
gentleman, and his subordinate officers thoroughly competent to their 
places. 

THE PASSENGERS, 

aside from a few invalids, were gold seekers, as fine a set uf men, with a 
few whiskey-loving exceptions, as were ever seen together on a steam- 
boat. They w^re generally united in companies lor mutual assistance and 
protection, though occasionally one went resolutely •'on his own personal 
curve." "The American Mining and Exploring Company/' under the lead- 
ership of Captain Willard, contains twelve active members and one of 
Cicero's impedimenta. The outfit of this company is very good with the 
important exception of means of transportation ; but we presume that this 
lack may be supplied, though perhaps at exorbitant cost, from the Indian 
ponies with which the country abounds. 

We can hardly imagine that a company containing such men as the 
high-minded and efficient Thompson, the good-natured and energetic 
Meade, the versatile Watkins, and reliable Gould, should fail in their un- 
dertakings unless there should prove to be some radical defect in the con- 
stitution which holds them together. A small company, consisting of 
Messrs. Chapman, Clow and Jones, is undoubtedly the best-fitted in all 
respects for the work before them. They had no whisky in their spacious 
tent, but they had four stalwart mules picketed in the grass waiting to take 
them and their baggage to their place of destination. When we say that 
their outfit was provided by Giles F. Filley, Esq., of this city, it will readily 
be inferred that not a single article necessary for use or comfort was omit- 
ted. They will be accompanied by Rev. Mr. Francis, a Welch clergyman 
of rare powers of adaptation, who conducted our Sabbath exercises on the 
boat, and who goes to the mines with the unselfish hope of doing good. 

This company will act in concert with another company under the lead 
of a Mr. Hurlbut, an intelligent miner of large experience. If there is 
any gold in this far-off mountain region, these men, we predict, will find it. 
There were several other companies, but we did not get sufficiently ac- 
quainted with their members to be able to speak of them intelligently. \\ e 
remember there was a company with a large outfit, led by a Colonel Hun- 
kins. There was another consisting of Messrs. Lansing, Arnold, and 
others. 



162 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Mr. Arnold, an exceedingly ingenious mechanic in wood and iron. 
takes with him to the mines his wife, a most genial and accomplished lady. 
and his little daughter, who was the pet of the boat. Besides the gold 
seekers, there was a Mr. Vail, who, witli his family, was going to oversee 
the government farm, an establishment on Sun river, about sixty miles 
from Fort La Barge, intended to be an agent in civilizing the Indians, es- 
pecially the Black Feet, Pegans and Bloods, who speak a common dialect. 
We have little faith in the success of the enterprise. 

THE MISSOURI 

Is, undoubtedly, the muddiest, and crookedest, and swiftest, and snaggiest 
river on the globe. The clayey banks are constantly falling in, and ming- 
ling with the water, render it as impervious to human vision as mush and 
molasses. Some of the bends form peninsulas, not more than five miles 
across the isthmus or neck, while it is thirty-five by the river. Several of 
the passengers at different times varied the monotony of the voyage by 
shouldering their rifles and taking these short cuts. On one occasion some 
thirty of them, after completing their march, were compelled to spend the 
night on a bleak bluff, supperless and unblanketed, in a violent thunder 
-storm, the boat failing to reach them in consequence of getting 'stalled'' 
on a sand-bar. We observed that these adventurers the next morning 
ate their fried bacon and corn bread with unusual relish and in fabulous 
quantity. 

The swiftness of the current, coupled with opposing snags and sand 
bars, and the necessity of stopping to chop our own wood for the engine 
more than half the way, prevented us from making much more than ninety 
miles per day, so that the voyage up occupied us nearly thirty-four days — a 
time sufficient for three voyages across the Atlantic. We reached home. 
after remaining two days at Fort Benton, July 2d, the thirteenth day from 
starting. The whole trip, therefore, making no deductions for delays at 
trading posts and for involuntary detentions from accidents, was just 
seven weeks long. We lay more than a day on one sand bar somewhere 
in the region of Fort Pierre, and spent at least half a day in mending a 
rivet hole in the boiler. We "tied up" every night. On our return we 
came at railroad speed, some days making three hundred miles. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 163 

THE SCENERY 

along- the river is not unworthy of notice. The banks in Missouri, Kansas, 
Iowa, Nebraska, and for a considerable distance in the immense Territory 
of Dacotah, are not very grand, but they are exceedingly green. Every- 
thing- indicates a region of unsurpassed fertility, waiting in its primeval 
solitudes for the industrious hand of the white man. From this point to a 
point some two or three hundred miles above the mouth of the Yellow 
Stone, a distance of more than a thousand miles, the river banks are high 
and precipitous bluffs, bold and barren, looking down upon the voyageuf 
morning, noon and night, in dull and everlasting monotony. There may 
be productive lands beyond them, but we infer from the epithet, mattvaise 
terres, applied by the French explorers to a large portion of this recrion, 
that it is comparatively worthless for cultivation. Throughout the last five 
hundred miles of our trip, the scenery is grand and striking beyond des- 
cription. Nature seems to have wrought with human hands, and with the 
implements of human art. Red sandstone urns, of various sizes, appar- 
ently as perfect in form as if chiseled under the eye of Powers or Story. 
crown the apex of conical hills on each side of the river. Castellated tur- 
rets and frowning battlements, partially crumbled, beguile you for the 
moment into the belief that you are travelling amidst the ruins of dila- 
pidated fortresses and castles in the old world. The river, in two or three 
instances, seems, in some remote period, to have broken through remark- 
able stone walls, running across the river at right angles, and extending 
indefinitely over the bluffs into the prairie. These walls are about three 
feet thick, with smooth parallel faces, as if hammered, and sometimes 
reaching a height of twenty or thirty feet. Whether nature, in seme ma- 
sonic freak, or man in the times beyond the flood, built these walls, we can 
only say that the master-builder, whoever he was. "broke joints." and did 
his work well. The bottom lands are frequently covered with the inevit- 
able Cottonwood, a species of poplar, filled at maturity with little green 
bolls, which open in June and whiten the air with their thistle-like down. 
A sort of red willow far up the river supplies the Indians with a tobacc" 
which they call "Kinnikinick." Prickly pear abounds in infinite varieties 
to the great disgust of the Indians, whose moccasins arc a poor defence 
against their terrible spikes. We observed on the banks, among other 



164 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

flowers, modest mountain lilies and the showy porcupine plant; but Wt 
learned little of the geology of the country, and still less of its flora. 

OI- THE FAUNA 

of the country, we saw specimens of almost every variety known in North 
America. We shot at least thirty buffaloes from the boat, and lassoed 
and brought home eight calves. The buffalo is a magnificent beast, physic- 
ally, but, like some large men. does not shine intellectually. 

The net weight of one big bull dressed on the boat was estimated at 
twelve hundred pounds. They will cross the river at improper times, and 
that, too, in front of the boat. Some of the droves on the bottom- and 
adjoining slopes must have numbered nearly two thousand. The elk. 
with its broad-branching antlers, the antelope, with "its soft dark eye." 
the wolf, both mountain and prairie, over whose sneaking pursuit of some 
wounded or defenceless animal, the turkey buzzard hovers and circles 
with unflagging interest: the beaver, whose two chisel-like teeth will fell 
a cotton-wood tree a foot in diameter, as handsomely, if not quite as 
quickly, as the wood chopper: the black-tailed deer, with its scentless 
hind-feet — all alike fell before the deadly aim of our sportsmen. We were 
also visited by the black bear and the mountain sheep, with its cnormou- 
horns, upon which he hurls himself when springing from peak to peak 
among the precipitous heights which he frequents. We brought back 
with us to St. Joe, a grizzly bear, the most vicious brute on the globe, and 
took home three amiable young wolves, a prairie dog looking more like a 
huge aldermanic grey squirrel than it does like a dog, two cat-owls, the 
sharp-sightedness of whose great yellow eyes in the dark furnished HomeT 
with an epithet for his Atheme — "the bright-eyed," not the "blue-eyed 
Minerva." 

THE ATMOSPHERE 

Is exceedingly dry and pure. Buffalo tongues and strips of meat hung in 
the sun will be dried through and thoroughly cured in a few days without a 
speck of salt. So far as our observation went, the air is too bracing for 
pulmonary invalids, irritating instead of soothing the lungs. We say most 
earnestly to all sick men, especially to those troubled with organic diffi- 
culties in the chest, disbelieve all the stories told you by kind friends of 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 165 

marvellous cures effected by change of air. and Stay at home. You cannot 
heal an old fever-sore by fanning it with a new fan. 

THE FORTS, 

so-called, are, with the exception of the Government fort, Randall, mere 
trading posts, occupied by the Indians, half breeds, horses and wolf do^s. 
living together within the same high inclosure in fragrant and harmonious 
fellowship. There is 'not a livery stable in this city which is not a more 
desirable place to live in than either Fort Benton, Fort Union or Fort 
Berthold. About a mile above Fort Benton we dedicated, in honor of our 
worthy captain, a new fort — Fort La Barge — which, we trust will be in point 
of neatness and comfort, an exception to the filthy lairs to which we have 
referred. The passengers of the Shreveport, which we had overtaken and 
brought along with us, assisted at the rites. Dr. McKellops presided, 
and brief speeches, under the quiet stars, amid the white tents of the crold 
seekers dotting the bottom lands, were made by Rev. Mr. Francis and 
Messrs. Barrell, Meade, Chapman, and others, and the whole affair passed 
off pleasantly, with hearty cheers for the new fort, the captain, the Union, 
and the old flag waving over us. From the bluffs of this point the Rocky 
Mountain chain is distinctly visible, its snowy peaks looming up in the 
western horizon in solitary and majestic grandeur. 

INDIANS 

of numerous tribes were constantly visiting the boat after we reached the 
Yanckton Sioux reservation. The chiefs and braves of the Sioux, Man- 
dans, Ricarees, Gros Ventres, Crows, Bloods, Pegans, Blackfeet. and others, 
came on board and accompanied us, in greater or less numbers, throughout 
our voyage. The Gros Ventre chief and squaw who came to this city are 
the best specimens we saw on the trip. At all the principal ports the boat 
was thronged by the inevitable red-skins. Their black eyes were peering 
into every nook and cranny, and their light fingers did not fail to appro- 
priate any attractive articles which might be "lying round loose." Our 
own room, which had been made by parting off the after cabin, contained 
three windows, all of which were turned into tableaux frames, each being 
filled with swart, curious faces, whose imperturbable stare after a few hours 
became diagreeable. The personal appearance of the Indians is in the 



166 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

highest degree grotesque and fantastic. There is with them no fashion 
in dress, no aping of tipper tendom, but each one arrays himself as scem- 
eth best in his own eyes. One wraps a bead-bespangled government 
blanket about him and lies down to pleasant dreams; another disports 
himself in the sultry noon in a huge buffalo robe ; another exults in a bob- 
tailed military coat buttoned tip to his chin with brass buttons, and reach- 
ing almost down to his hips; another rejoice^ in a pair of legging and 
wolf-skin cap; another struts about in a breech-cloth of limited dimen- 
sions and uncertain tenure of position, and another riots in un-fig-leafed 
Paradisaical freedom. The women are as brawny and muscular as their 
stalwart lords, and dress themselves with as little ta^tc and decency. 
Tigments are in great demand. The squaws, instead of rouarlnq their 
cheeks like civilized ladies, bedaub their foreheads and eyebrows with a 
fiery red paint. This is the favorite color of the braves, and they spread it 
on thick just before starting on a war expedition. We noticed one great 
bare-chested fellow, whose ugly face was painted a coal black, his arms 
and breast being striped with the same color, like a gridiron. Tie looked 
like the devil as represented in the ancient Mysteries. 

The food of the Indians consists largely of wild meat, which, without 
the intervention of knives, forks or tables, they devour both cooked and 
raw. We saw them ourselves, on several occasions, gobble down raw. 
the half washed tripe and liver, still palpitating with life of animals shot 
from the boat. A hole in the ground or in the centre of a log serves as a 
cooking stove, which, together with a large tin pan, into which they throw 
their broiled meat, and out of which they eat it, constitutes the bulk of 
their household furniture. The squaws also raise some corn, which they 
dry on a scaffolding above their hovels and then bury it in holes in the 
giound. When they w^ish to use it they grind or pound it with a large 
pestle and mortar, a good specimen of which, found at an abandoned fort. 
has been presented by Mr. Clow, to Washington Universitv. The lodges 
scattered along the river banks, whether mud huts or tent-, are almost in- 
variably dens of filth and vermin. When the heads of the inmates become 
over populous, they hunt each other's domain, and devour, uncooked. 
the prey which they capture. An exhibition of this sort on the boat, re- 
minded us of the famous riddle proposed by some fishermen to old Homer, 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 167 

who is said to die of vexation, because he could not gueSfl it. The morals 
of the Indians according- to any standard with which we are acquainted 
is far below zero. With no delicac\, no sense of beauty and purity, no 
conception of self-sacrifice and forgiveness, they are gross in all their ap- 
petites, revengeful, treacherous and bloody. We saw a half-breed trying 
to sell his two daughters to a negro servant on the boat, for a certain 
amount of whisky, and the bar-keeper was offered the squaw of a Black- 
foot for a single glass of ''rot-gut.'' 

But if we should discuss, however briefly, all the Indian characteristics 
which attracted our attention, we should write a voiume. We will only 
say, in conclusion, that, in our judgment, sympathy and sentiment are 
wasted upon them, and that the narratives of Catlin and Bryant, and 
the poetry of Longfellow and Colton, are alike the unreal and delusive 
creations of a riotous imagination. 

To be Continued. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND SUBJECTS FOR 

VOLUME V, MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Prepared by Charles A. Fi.a 



Authors' name, italicize.! 



GG 



Abbott Houses at Andover, 3-9. 

Ainsworth, Adjutant General, U. S. A., 
48. 

American Revolution, Department of, 36- 
105. 

Andover, Old Houses in, 3. 

Boston Tea Party, 112. 

Boston, The Seige of. By Allen French, 
Review, 48. 

Bowen, Diarv of Ashlev, of Marblehead, 
1774-5, 29. 

Burnam (Burnham) Genealogy, 39. 

Colonial Houses, Group of, at Andover, 3. 

Criticism and Comment Department, 48, 
112. 

"Defence", State Sloop, 36. 

Diary, Personal, of Ashley Bowen of 
Marblehead, 1774-5, 29. 

Douglas-Lithgoiv, R. A., M. D., L. L. D., 
A group of Colonial Houses at An- 
dover, 3. 

D. R. and D. A. R., 113. 

Editorial Department, 50. 

Flag a, Charles A., Manuscripts of Mass- 
achusetts in the Library of Con- 
gress, 10. 

Massachusetts Pioneers, Michi- 
gan Series, 115. 

Foss Family, 112. 

French, Allen, "The Seige of Boston", 
48. 

Gardner, Frank A., M. D., William 
Heath's and Samuel Gerrish's Regi- 
ment, 1775, 15, 55. 

Department of the American 

Revolution, 36, 105. 

— Ebenezer Learned's Regiment, 

1775, 72. 

Gardner, Lucie Marion. 48. 

— Family Genealogies, Essex Coun- 
ty, 39. 



Glover, General John, Birthplace of, in 

Salem, 37, 105. 
Greaton's regiment, 1775, 15, 55. 
Greenfield Historical Society, 114. 

Heath's Regiment, 1775, 15, 55. 

Hill, Frederic Stanhope, late U. S. X.. 
"The Romance of the American 
Navy". 114. 

Houses, Colonial, at Andover. 3. 

Kennison, David, of Boston Tea Party, 
113. 

Learned's Regiment, 1775, 72. 

Library of Congress, Massachusetts 
Manuscripts in, 10. 

Lunt Familv, 112. 

Massachusetts, Manuscripts in the Li- 
brary of Congress, 10. 

Massachusetts Pioneers, Michigan Ser- 
ies, 115. 

Michigan Series, Massachusetts Pioneers, 
Charles A. Flagg. 115. 

Missouri River, 141. 

Montana, 138. 

Morgan. J. Pierpont. family of. 112. 

"Nantes". State Brigantine, 107. 

New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety, building of, on Somerset St., 
Boston. 48. 

Plymouth, Winslow House, 102. 

Reminiscences of Four-Score Year?. 
Judge Francis M. Thompson, of 
Greenfield, Mass., 123. 

Romance of the American Navy, review, 
114. 

Sheldon, Hon. George, 113. 

Thompson, Ji'dae Francis .1/.. Reminis- 
cences of Four-Score Years, 123. 

"Vengeance", State Ship, 109. 

Waters, Thomas Franklin, Our Editorial 
Pages, 50. 

Winslow House, Plymouth, 102. 



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